The information in this section was obtained mainly from the following sources: Jenő Pintér's eight volume Magyar irodalomtörténet (Budapest: Stephaneum, 1930-1941), Ferenc Ványi's Magyar irodalmi lexikon (Budapest: Studium, 1926), and the new three volume Magyar irodalmi lexikon (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1963-1965; see no. 4605). The information in the subsection on newspapers and periodicals is reported under the titles appearing in the biographical sketches. Those titles for which data are provided in Appendix C are referred to that section. Changes in titles, titles of supplements, and titles of newspapers and periodicals mentioned in but not appearing as main entries are listed in their alphabetical place. Some information is recorded for all important Hungarian newspapers and periodicals. No data on nine Hungarian and ten foreign titles were available in the sources consulted. For the most part, the unreported Hungarian titles are those which were published in the provinces or in countries neighboring Hungary, or which appeared for a very short time.


Baumgarten Prize: System of prizes and grants established on October 7, 1923, by the testament of Ferenc Ferdinánd Baumgarten, an aesthetician and critic. First awards made in 1929, last in 1949, always on January 18, the anniversary of his death. Administered by a board of trustees called the Baumgarten Kuratórium. Members were Lóránt Basch and Mihály Babits, and, after the latter's death in 1941, Aladár Schöpflin. According to the terms of the will, the annual award and grant were to be conferred upon those literary or learned writers who were free of all forms of prejudice and pursued their ideals at great material hardship to themselves. Annual awards totaled 3000-8000 pengős; from 1947, 8000-10,000 forints. Trustees were often attacked by leftist writers for selections. The awards served a positive purpose in encouraging the development of Hungarian literature.

József Attila Prize: National literary award for poets, prose-writers, aestheticians, critics, and literary historians. Established in 1950 in the name of the noted poet. Three degrees: 10,000, 8000, and 5000 forints. Awarded each year on April 4, the date of Hungary's liberation in World War II.

Kossuth Prize: Medal conferred annually by the Hungarian People's Republic as its highest distinction in recognition of those who attain distinguished success in the areas of learning, arts, and production. May be awarded to a researcher or a group of individuals. Established in 1948, the 100th anniversary of the Revolution of 1848-1849, and presented on March 15 of each year. Since 1966 awarded every three years. Four awards: grand prize 75,000 forints, first 50,000, second 35,000, and third 20,000 forints. First literary award went posthumously, in 1948, to Attila József for his lifework.

Marczibányi Prize: The first literary prize in Hungary. Named after István Marczibányi (1752-1810), a literary patron and large landowner, whose will established a 50,000 forint foundation for the recognition of learned writings and literature. Presidents of the foundation: László Teleki, József Podmaniczky, Antal Cziráky, and György Mailáth. Prizes awarded by the National Museum. Prize of 400 forints awarded at a ceremonial meeting 1815-1830. Foundation did not function 1831-1845. Granting of awards taken over by the Academy in 1845 and divided into two grants, one of which was awarded annually to a work considered to be second best to the one receiving the Academy's own grand prize. Last awarded in 1944. Central Council of Hungarian Trade Unions Prize: Established in 1958 to recognize distinguished achievement in each branch of the arts. Individual amounts of 10,000 forints awarded on May 1 of each year. Literary prize awarded to the work of the previous year considered to be the best treatment of a contemporary theme. Priority given to one developing some theme from the life of a worker.


Academy: See Magyar Tudományos Akadémia.

Batsányi János Társaság: See Janus Pannonius Társaság.

Dugonics-Társaság: Literary society established in Szeged in 1892. Named after András Dugonics. Main purpose was to support literary life in Szeged and the Alföld and to spread knowledge about Hungarian literature. Held lectures and literary celebrations, and conducted research. Also awarded prizes to its members to help them prepare works for publication. Fifty members. Desired to establish freedom from the literature of Budapest but welcomed visits from writers working in the capital. György Lázár was first president; succeeded by József Szalay. Its best yearbooks include those celebrating the 100th anniversaries of the death of Dugonics and Sándor Petőfi. Also published monographs, including Antal Prónai's biography of Dugonics. István Tömörkény and Ferenc Móra served as secretaries for a time.

Erdélyi Irodalmi Társaság: Literary society established on November 18, 1888 in Kolozsvár, Transylvania, to encourage the development and knowledge of Hungarian literature. Gyula Csernátoni secretary and Géza Kuun president at its founding; Endre Dózsa secretary beginning in 1905. Csernátoni and Zoltán Ferenczi, both Petőfi specialists, played a large role in its activities. Published Erdélyi Lapok under the editorship of Dezső Kovács and Ernő Kiss until 1913. Ceased to function for a time after World War I. Resumed its activities in 1921. Membership about 80 in mid-1920's. Dózsa president in 1926. Also published literary works.

Erdélyi Katolikus Akadémia: Formed in 1929 in Kolozsvár to assist the work of Hungarian Catholic writers and scholars in Rumania.

Erdélyi Múzeum-Egylet: Oldest Hungarian learned society in Transylvania. Founded by Imre Mikó in 1859 in Kolozsvár for the major purpose of maintaining the Erdélyi Museum (established in 1860). Its various learned sections (philosophy, language, history; natural sciences; medical science; law and political science) contributed significantly to the stimulation of learning and literature among Hungarians in Transylvania. Arranged lectures, congresses, and exhibitions. Published two periodicals: Erdélyi Múzeumi Füzetek and Orvostudományi Értesítő. Work of professors at the University of Kolozsvár made its activities flower after 1872. Ceased its activities for a time after World War I but resumed them in 1921.

Hazafiúi Magyar Társaság: Learned society established in 1789 on the basis of György Bessenyei's plan in his Egy magyar társaság iránt való jámbor szándék. Failed quickly for lack of support from the government.

Hungarian Writers' Federation: See Magyar Írók Szövetsége.

Írószövetség: See Magyar Írók Szövetsége.

Janus Pannonius Társaság: Literary society established to advance the literary and cultural life of the South Transdanubian region and Pécs. Became the publisher of Sorsunk (see Appendix C) in 1941. Published the works of poets and essayists in a series called Janus Pannonius Társaság Könyvtára. Name changed to Batsányi János Társaság in 1946. Ceased in 1948.

Kemény Zsigmond Társaság: Literary society founded in 1878 in Marosvásárhely, Transylvania, in the name of the noted author. Major purpose to cultivate literature and to collect the remains of folk poetry in Transylvania. Lajos Tolnai founder and first secretary; Károly Apor first president. Published Erdélyi Figyelő (q.v.) under the editorship of Tolnai 1879-1880. Its lectures, awards, and yearbooks influenced literary life in Transylvania. Secretaries after World War I: Károly Molter, then Mária Berde. Began publishing Zord Idő (q.v.) in 1920.

Kisfaludy-Társaság: Literary society established on November 12, 1836, in memory of Károly Kisfaludy with funds obtained from the publication of Ferenc Toldy's complete edition of Kisfaludy's works. Founders were his friends and fellow authors, including József Bajza, Toldy, and Mihály Vörösmarty. Only function at first was to award literary prizes (beginning in 1837) and to criticize odes. Beginning in 1841 its purpose was widened, and it became one of the most important influences on the development of literary taste and literature. Among members during early years: Pál Csató, Gergely Czuczor, Miklós Jósika, Ferenc Kölcsey, Pál Kovács, József Péczely, László Szalay, József Szenvey, Gusztáv Szontágh, and Lőrinc Tóth. Held monthly lectures; its annual meeting on the anniversary of Kisfaludy's birth, February 5. Reported its activities in Kisfaludy-Társaság Évlapjai (see Appendix C). Also published Szépirodalmi Szemle; two book series, Széptani Remekírók and Külföldi Regénytár; numerous works by individual authors; and the very important collection of Hungarian folk poetry, Magyar Népköltési Gyűjtemény (1872-1914). Turned the attention of writers to the value of folk poetry, classical and world literature. Membership (50 regular, 20 corresponding) drawn from writers, poets, literary historians, aestheticians, critics, and translators. Among officers at one time: János Arany, András Fáy, Pál Gyulai, János Erdélyi, Miklós Jósika, József Eötvös, Zsigmond Kemény, Ferenc Toldy, Móric Lukács, Zsolt Beöthy, Albert Berzeviczy, and Géza Voinovich. Ceased in 1952.

Magyar Írók Szövetsége (in text also: Hungarian Writers' Federation and Írószövetség): Federation of Hungarian writers, poets, critics, and translators who endorse the basic principles of socialism and apply the tenet that literature is to build a socialistic society. Seeks to achieve social realism in literature. Established in February 1945 as Magyar Írók Szabad Szervezete; took its present name in July 1945. Represented a wide range of viewpoints 1945-1949 and often caused political difficulties 1949-1953. Became a forum for the discussion of differing views regarding the nature of socialistic progress in Hungary 1953-1956. At an organization meeting in September 1956 it endorsed the political concepts of Imre Nagy and chose officers supporting that position. At a meeting in December 1956 announced its manifesto, "Gond és hitvallás," which opposed the government of the Hungarian Revolutionary Workers' and Peasants' party. Was banned by the government in early 1957. Communist writers established Irodalmi Tanács in its place in spring 1957, but it became necessary to re-establish Magyar Írók Szövetsége through consolidation in 1959. This consolidation was carried out at a meeting on September 25, 1959. Since that date it has been fulfilling its original purposes. Presidents : Gergely Sándor, Gyula Illyés, and Aurél Kárpáti, 1945-1951; József Darvas, 1951-1953; Péter Veres, 1953-1957; Darvas from 1959. Secretaries-general, including chief secretaries: Elemér Boross, 1945-1946; Tibor Barabás, 1946-1949; Gábor Devecseri, 1949-1951; Lajos Kónya, 1951-1953; Sándor Erdei, 1953-July 1955; Aladár Tamás, July 1955-September 1956; Sándor Erdei, September 1956-1957; Imre Dobozy since 1959.

Magyar PEN Club: Hungarian chapter of the international association of world writers. Established in 1926 in Budapest with Jenő Rákosi as president. Members often engaged in controversies stemming from the social and political situation in Hungary. Tenth Congress held in Budapest in 1932. Officers: Dezső Kosztolányi, Albert Berzeviczy, and Antal Radó. Banned on March 9, 1945; resumed its activities in fall 1945. Officers after that time: Jenő Heltai, György Bölöni; István Sőtér president since 1960.

Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (in text: Academy): Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Formally organized on November 17, 1830, with József Teleki as president and István Széchenyi as vice-president. Began with six sections: linguistics, philosophy, history, mathematics, law, and natural science. Elected members from writers as well as scholars. Among writers first chosen: Károly Kisfaludy, Sándor Kisfaludy, Mihály Vörösmarty, Ferenc Kazinczy, Dániel Berzsenyi, Ferenc Kölcsey, and Ferenc Toldy. Its sections were reduced to three in 1869: language and liberal arts; history, philosophy, and social science; mathematics and natural science. The year 1949 was important as it was forced to merge with Természettudományi Akadémia (established in 1945) and Magyar Tudományos Tanács (established in 1948); its sections expanded to 10: language and literature, society and history, mathematics and physics, agriculture, medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology, economics and law, and earth sciences and mining. Continues to publish such important journals as Irodalomtörténeti Közlemények, Magyar Nyelvőr and Magyar Könyvszemle and important learned works throughout its history. Has awarded prizes to authors and literary historians since 1832; some named after noted persons (József Teleki, Ferenc Nádasdy, etc.). Presidents: József Teleki, 1830-1855; Emil Dessewffy, 1855-1866; József Eötvös, 1866-1871; Menyhért Lonyay, 1871-1884; Ágoston Trefort, 1885-1888; Lóránd Eötvös, 1889-1905; Albert Berzeviczy, 1905-1935; Archduke Joseph Hapsburg, 1935-1945; Zoltán Kodály, 1946-1949; István Rusznyák since 1949.

Petőfi-Társaság: Literary society founded on November 23, 1876, to advance literature and aesthetics in Hungary. Mór Jókai president, 1876-1904; Ferenc Herczeg, 1904-1920. Made important contribution by collecting Sándor Petőfi relics and manuscripts, establishing and maintaining the Petőfi House, and publishing the Petőfi-könyvtár (see no. 3001). Published two periodicals: Petőfi-Társaság Lapja, 1877-1878, and Koszorú 1879-1885 (q.v.). Annually awarded the Petőfi Prize to the outstanding lyric poet and the Jókai Prize to the outstanding author of prose fiction. Ceased in 1944.

Szent István Akadémia. Formed from the learned and literary section of the Szent István Társulat in 1916. Chose its members from the most noted Catholic scholars and literary figures in Hungary.

Szigligeti-Társaság: Established in 1892 in Nagyvárad, Transylvania, for educational lectures and literary evenings. Founded by Ödön Rádl; János Karácsonyi president in 1926. Among noted members at the time of its founding: Sándor Endrődi, Ödön Iványi, Emma Ritoók, and Ede Sas. Did much to preserve the memory of Ede Szigligeti. A theater constructed in 1899 in Nagyvárad was named after him through efforts of members. Endre Ady elected a member in 1898 as a journalist in Nagyvárad. He often read from his poems at lectures.

Vörösmarty Akadémia (in text: Vörösmarty Academy): Literary society formed in December 1918, at the initiative of the writers of the Nyugat School to unite the progressive authors in Hungary. Named after Mihály Vörösmarty. Endre Ady elected president, Mihály Babits and Zsigmond Móricz vice-presidents, and Aladár Schöpflin secretary-general. Among members: Zoltán Ambrus, Sándor Bródy, Miksa Fenyő, Milán Füst, Géza Gárdonyi, Oszkár Gellért, Lajos Hatvany, Jenő Heltai, Ferenc Herczeg, Hugó Ignotus, Gyula Juhász, Margit Kaffka, Frigyes Karinthy, Lajos Kassák, József Kiss, Dezső Kosztolányi, Gyula Krúdy, Géza Laczkó, Ferenc Molnár, Lajos Nagy, Ernő Osvát, Béla Révész, Ernő Szép, Gyula Szini, Dezső Szomory, Józsi Jenő Tersánszky, and Árpád Tóth.


Akasztott Ember. See Ma.

Alkotás. Fine arts periodical. Was published by Művészeti Tanács in Budapest. Edited by Lajos Kassák 1947-1948.

Arad és Vidéke. Arad, December 25, 1880-June 1921/24. Political daily. Official organ of the Arad County Independent and 1848 parties. Edited in 1910's by Elemér Szudy, Jenő Sugár, József Réthy, Géza Kaszab, and Sándor Károly.

Aradi Hírlap. Arad, 1883-1884. Political daily. Edited by Gyula Reviczky.

Athenaeum. Pest, January 1, 1837-1843. Literary and learned periodical which continued the program of Aurora, 1822-1837 (q.v.). Its critical articles sought to advance the principles of Károly Kisfaludy. Raised dramatic criticism to a systematic and serious level in Hungary for the first time; Mihály Vörösmarty its regular dramatic critic. Among its contributors: Gergely Czuczor, József Eötvös, János Erdélyi, András Fáy, János Garay, Miklós Jósika, Zsigmond Kemény, Lajos Kuthy, Ignác Nagy, Mihály Tompa, and Péter Vajda. In 1840, there were 120 writers contributing to the periodical. The first to publish, in 1842, a poem of Sándor Petőfi with his name. Appeared three times weekly. Editors: Vörösmarty, József Bajza, and Ferenc Toldy. Péter Vajda was assistant editor for a time. Weekly critical supplement published 1837-1840: Figyelmező (q.v.). Principal opposition periodicals: Szion, Honművész, and, especially, Hírnök (q.v.) and its supplement, Századok.

Aurora. Pest, 1822-1837. Károly Kisfaludy's literary and critical almanac. Voice of romanticism. One of the most important instruments in the establishment of Hungarian literature. Introduced new literary forms, including the short story, novel, and folk lyric poetry. Contained illustrations and musical compositions. First published Mihály Vörösmarty's Szózat and Ferenc Kölcsey's "Himnusz." Most important contributors: József Bajza, Gergely Czuczor, Kölcsey, Vörösmarty, and, above all, Károly Kisfaludy. Also published the writings of Dániel Berzsenyi, Gábor Döbrentei, János Erdélyi, András Fáy, József Gaál, János Garay, Gáspár Helmeczy, Ferenc Kazinczy, Sándor Kisfaludy, Ignác Nagy, Ferenc Toldy, Lőrinc Tóth, Péter Vajda, and Mihály Vitkovics. Established through request for subscriptions in Hazai és Külföldi Tudósítások, a political newspaper begun in 1805 by István Kultsár, which helped Pest become the publishing center of Hungary. First volume appeared in fall 1821 but dated 1822. Eventually appeared semi-annually; the number of copies exceeded 1000. Editors: Károly Kisfaludy, 1822-1832; Bajza, 1832-1837. Superseded by Athenaeum (q.v.).

Auróra. Budapest, December 24, 1919-1923. Learned and literary periodical with a progressive outlook. Articles on literature, the arts, social-political questions, religious life, education, the problems of women, personal health, and timely international issues. Among its contributors: Mihály Babits, Marcell Benedek, Imre Csécsy, Gyula Germanus, Kálmán Lambrecht, Máriusz Rabinovszky, Árpád Tóth, and Rusztem Vámbéry. Founded and edited by Sándor Giesswein, taken over by Dezső Szabó in January 1923, then continued by him as Élet és Irodalom, 1923 (q.v.). First two numbers appeared weekly, later numbers monthly.

Bécsi Magyar Újság. Vienna, October 31, 1919-October 31, 1923. Political newspaper which expressed the views of Hungarian Communist and radical journalists who emigrated to Vienna when the Horthy régime came to power in Hungary. Among its contributors: Béla Balázs, Lajos Barta, György Bölöni, Tibor Déry, Andor Gábor, Endre Gáspár, Lajos Kassák, Sándor Kémeri (Mrs. György Bölöni), and Béla Kőhalmi. Its staff placed anti-Horthy articles in foreign newspapers. Editorial policy guided by Oszkár Jászi beginning in 1922.

Bolond Istók. Budapest, January 6, 1878-January 1, 1918. Illustrated humor magazine intended to counteract the influence of Borsszem Jankó (q.v.) and to develop the strength and influence of the Independence party. Strongly anti-Austrian. Attacked the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Kisfaludy-Társaság; belittled Ágost Greguss, Pál Gyulai, Károly Szász, and the supporters of the government and learned men in general; opposed Jews and Catholic priests. Famous characters: General Szakramentovics, a Hungarophobe Austrian general; Flinta and Pecek, personifications of the Hungarian peasant soldier's mentality; Paja Móric, a member of the Tisza political party who is passionately fond of the meat pot; and Kóbi Federvieh, a Jewish journalist. Founded and edited by Lajos Bartók under the pseudonym Don Pedrő. Edited by Lajos Baróti from January 1, 1903; by Lajos Nagy in 1918.

Bolond Miksa. See Borsszem Jankó.

Borsszem Jankó. Pest, January 1868-1938. Illustrated weekly humor magazine which represented the views of the Government party and regularly supported the Deák party. Most widely read humor magazine in Hungary after the Compromise of 1867. Subscribers never exceeded 2000, but copies were available in nearly every reading circle and coffeehouse. Popularity based on its characters: Berci Mokány, provincial landowner; Vendel Sanyaró, civil official; András Mihaszna, policeman; and country bumpkins. Among its important contributors: Lajos Abonyi, Kornél Ábrányi, Árpád Berczik, Lajos Dóczy, Lajos Hevesi, Andor Kozma, Jenő Rákosi, and Zoltán Somlyó. Several of Mihály Babits's and Frigyes Karinthy's writings also appeared in it. Begun and edited by Adolf Ágai under the pseudonym Csicseri Bors. Principal opposition humor magazines: Mór Jókai's Üstökös (q.v.) and Kálmán Tóth's Bolond Miksa.

Budapesti Divatlap. See Pesti Divatlap.

Budapesti Hírlap. Budapest, June 16, 1881-1938. Political daily newspaper which aimed at the building of Hungarian patriotism and ideals and claimed to address all Hungarians. Did not support any political party but endorsed the Compromise of 1867. Came to the support of István Tisza near the end of the century. Later opposed Endre Ady and the members of the Nyugat School. Among its contributors: Ivor Kaas, Viktor Rákosi, and Béla Tóth; later Bernát Alexander, Ferenc Herczeg, Benedek Jancsó, Frigyes Karinthy, Andor Kozma, and Zsigmond Sebők. Published Ady's articles from Paris in 1904. Reached 30,000 subscribers around 1890. Begun under the editorship of Jenő Rákosi and József Csukássi. The former wrote numerous lead articles; the latter became chief editor in 1925. Other editors: Ferenc Csajthay, Emil Nadányi, György Ottlik, János Bókay, and Béla Pogány.

Budapesti Közlöny. Pest, March 12, 1867-1944. Official daily newspaper of the Hungarian government. Until 1875 contained articles on political questions and subjects of general interest in addition to laws, decrees, and announcements. During this period Ferenc Salamon, the historian, was editor; Adolf Gyurmán, editor of political columns; and László Arany, the most frequent contributor of articles on literature and the arts. In 1875 became the purely official daily on the grounds that it was unfair for a political party to use a tax-supported newspaper for its own purposes. Editors: Salamon, 1867-October 10, 1892; Károly Vadnay, June 1893-February 1905; Gusztáv Beksics, February 1905-May 1906. Gusztáv Ladik served as temporary editor on two occasions. István Bársony began his long editorship on June 1, 1907. Superseded by Magyar Közlöny in 1945.

Budapesti Napilap. Budapest, 1876-1878.

Budapesti Napló. Budapest, August 20, 1896-July 9, 1918. Liberal political daily newspaper which did not support any political party. In addition to József Vészi's lead articles, it was important for the encouragement it gave to Hungarian authors experimenting with the new forms of literary expression current in West European literature. Such contributors came mainly from A Hét (q.v.). Endre Ady, whose articles from Paris appeared in it in 1904, became a regular contributor in 1905; many of his poems and prosewritings first appeared in its pages before the founding of Nyugat (q.v.). Among its other contributors: Frigyes Karinthy, Dezső Kosztolányi, and Ferenc Molnár. Begun by Vészi and former staff members of Pesti Napló (q.v.), who had left that paper when he resigned. Editors: Vészi chief editor and Sándor Braun managing editor, 1896-1905; Ede Pályi editor-owner beginning in 1907. Circulation declined steadily under Pályi but still amounted to 11,000 in 1910.

Buda-Pesti Rajzolatok. See Rajzolatok a Társas Élet és Divatvilágból.

Budapesti Szemle. Pest, 1840-July 1841. Literary and learned journal. Purpose to provide a general survey of the national, social, and scientific problems of Hungary and Europe. Contained first-rate articles on literary, historical, and political subjects. First Hungarian journal to publish the studies of young authors and scholars of the time. Patterned after the revue of Western Europe. Founded by László Szalay in association with József Eötvös, Móric Lukács, and Ágost Trefort. All served as editors.

Budapesti Szemle. Pest, October 1857-December 1869. Literary, historical, and learned journal. Purpose to provide critical examinations of developments in Hungarian and European literature and learning. Mainly articles on literature and history. Among its contributors: János Arany, József Eötvös, Ágost Greguss, Pál Gyulai, Zsigmond Kemény, Ferenc Salamon, László Szalay, and Ferenc Toldy. Ten numbers annually. Founded by Antal Csengery. Editors: Csengery, 1857-1864; Csengery and Menyhért Lónyay, 1865-1869. Continued by Budapesti Szemle, 1873-1944 (q.v.).

Budapesti Szemle. Pest, January 1873-1944. Literary and learned journal supported by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and considered by the Kisfaludy-Társaság as its own gazette, to which most of its members contributed. Contained academically oriented studies and critiques and original literary works. Reached its highpoint under the editorship of Pál Gyulai, its founder. Contributors prior to the end of the century included the most important authors, literary critics, and literary historians: Zoltán Ambrus, Bernát Alexander, Dávid Angyal, Sándor Baksay, Zsolt Beöthy, Árpád Berczik, Gergely Csiky, Sándor Endrődi, Vilmos Győry, Gusztáv Haraszti, István Hegedüs, Gusztáv Heinrich, Sándor Imre, Gusztáv Jánosi, Andor Kozma, József Lévay, Kálmán Mikszáth, Albert Pálffy, István Petelei, Jenő Péterfy, Antal Radó, Frigyes Riedl, Károly Szász, Gyula Vargha, János Váczy, Antal Zichy, and Géza Zichy. Appeared monthly 1873-1919. Editors: Gyulai, 1873-1909; Géza Voinovich, 1909-1944. Continued Budapesti Szemle, 1857-1869 (q.v.).

Cimbora. Kisbacon, Rumania, 1922-1929. Rumanian Hungarian illustrated weekly for children. Original belles-lettres of the highest quality. Important instrument in the development of children's literature in Hungarian. Educational section and editor's letters an important supplement to the formal schooling of children. Among its contributors: Béla Balázs, Jenő Dsida, Gyula Fábián, Jenő Szentimrei, and Áron Tamási. Editorial board in Kisbacon, Rumania; printing press in Szatmár.

Csillag. Budapest, 1947-1956. Literary and critical periodical under the direction of the Hungarian Communist party. Purpose to foster the development of socialist literature in accordance with the party's view of the function of literature. Concerned with all aspects of Hungarian cultural life. Contained reviews and original short stories, poems, and plays by Hungarian and foreign authors. Appeared monthly. Editors: Andor Németh, chief editor and István Király, managing editor, 1947-1950; Tamás Aczél, managing editor, August 1950-1953, when it became a periodical of Magyar Írók Szövetsége; István Király, managing editor, February 1953-1956, with a changing membership on the editorial board; Lajos Kónya became editor, fall 1956.

Debrecen. Debrecen, January 1869-1912, 1915, March 23-April 15, 1919. Political daily representing the official views of the Debrecen and Hajdu County Independence party. Edited in 1910's by Dezső Pósch, István Simon, Zoltán Szathmáry, and Vilmos Neményi. No editor recorded after March 23, 1919.

Debreceni Ellenőr. Debrecen, 1861. Appeared irregularly.

Debreceni Főiskolai Lapok. Debrecen, 1896-1914. Edited by Boldizsár Fél, Béla Kun, Béla Sipos, and Endre Gyökössy. Appeared irregularly.

Debreceni Független Újság. Debrecen, December 12, 1903-1930. Independent political daily. Edited in 1910's by Lóránt Hegedüs.

Debreceni Hírlap. Debrecen, 1912-1931. Newspaper appearing on Mondays. Edited by Sándor Balassa.

Debreceni Magyar Kalendárium. Debrecen, 1819-1856. Annual almanac founded, edited, and written by Mihály Fazekas until his death in 1828. Its strong educational purpose was new in Hungarian almanacs: to promulgate the value of work and to attack superstition among ordinary people. Contained learned information, writings with literary quality, and moral essays; omitted the traditional weather forecasts. Was widely read in Debrecen and the surrounding area.

Debreceni Nagy Újság. Debrecen, January 1911-1915. Political daily. Edited by Móric Perczel 1911-1912, Sándor Hajdu September 1912-1913, and József Szalánczy December 23, 1913-1915. Did not appear July 20-August 31, 1912.

Diárium. See Appendix C.

Diétai Magyar Múzsa. Pozsony, 1796. Mihály Csokonai Vitéz's periodical, in which he collected his poems and translations in the hope of obtaining the financial support of the aristocrats attending the parliamentary session in Pozsony in 1796. Appeared weekly. Ceased with 11th number for lack of support.

Dobsina és Vidéke. Dobsina, 1910-1918. Societal, politico-economic, and literary weekly. Edited by Károly Sztankovics 1910-1915, László Szombathy 1916-1918.

Dokumentum. Budapest, 1926 or 1927. Literary and societal periodical published by Lajos Kassák, with the assistance of Tibor Déry, Gyula Illyés, József Nádass, and Andor Németh.

Egyenlőség. Budapest, 1882-1938. Weekly periodical of Hungarian Jews. Strong editorial opposition to anti-Semitism but did not support Zionism. Editorship assumed by Lajos Szabolcsi in 1915 after the death of Miksa Szabolcsi. Andor Gábor was a staff member for a time.

Egyetértés. Budapest, April 1, 1874-October 1, 1913. Political daily newspaper which served as the organ of the Independence and 1848 parties. Its leftist leanings exerted a great influence on Hungarian society. Later editors continued to support the Lajos Kossuth cult. Edited by Lajos Csávolszky 1874-1899. Other editors: Márton Dienes, Pál Hoitsy, Károly Eötvös, and then Zoltán Pap, who was assisted by Ferenc Kossuth. Continued Magyar Újság (1867-1874), which represented the views of the 1848 party and published many of Lajos Kossuth's letters.

Egyházi Értekezések és Tudósítások. Veszprém, 1820-1824. Catholic quarterly intended to magyarize the Latin language of Catholic theology. Aroused the opposition of conservative priests but received support from those with liberal orientation. Ferenc Verseghy among its contributors. Edited by János Horváth, a distinguished canon and theologian. Ceased for lack of subscribers.

Együtt. Budapest, 1927-October 1928. Literary periodical which expressed the views and tastes of leftist writers. Among its contributors: Lajos Barta, Tibor Déry, Gyula Illyés, Pál Justus, and Lajos Kassák. Edited by Lajos Nagy.

Élet. Budapest, January 3, 1909-1944. Illustrated literary weekly with a Catholic viewpoint. Supported national traditions and Christian morality. Widely read by lower middle-class Catholic families in the provinces. Some writings of the representatives of the Nyugat School appeared in its early numbers, those of Dezső Kosztolányi 1910-1914; but eventually it sought to defend the national traditions of Hungarian literature against such influences. Editors: József Andor, 1908-1910; Alajos Izsóf, 1911-1913; Izsóf chief editor and Sándor Pethő editor first half of 1914; Andor, second half of 1914-1917; János Anka, October 27, 1918-1920; Anka and Zsolt Alszeghy, 1921-1922; Alszeghy, 1923-1944.

Élet és Irodalom. Budapest, 1923. Literary and critical periodical which was taken over by Dezső Szabó with the name Auróra, 1919-1923 (q.v.). Among contributors to first numbers: Aladár Bodor, Géza Féja, Gyula Juhász, and Árpád Tóth. Later numbers contained only Szabó's own writings and some poems by Endre Ady, Mihály Vörösmarty, and Sándor Petőfi.

Élet és Irodalom. Budapest, 1957+. Literary and critical weekly publishing those authors and critics who have accepted the role of strengthening the power of the people against opposing ideological tendencies. Editors: György Bölöni, 1957-October 1959; Miklós Szabolcsi, October 2, 1959-1961; Imre Dobozy and György Nemes, 1961+. Published by Magyar Írók Szövetsége since October 2, 1959. Mihály Váci became a member of editorial staff in 1960.

Élet és Literatúra. Pest, 1826-1829. First periodical on aesthetics in Hungary. Most important articles are those by Ferenc Kölcsey: his writings connected with the controversy with Ferenc Kazinczy about Ferenc Vályi Nagy's plagiarism of parts of Kölcsey's translation of the Iliad, his Nemzeti hagyományok, his critique of Körner's Zrinyi, and his studies of humor. First number contained the aphorisms of János Kis, Kölcsey's study of literary history, and Pál Szemere's translation of Körner's Zrinyi. Among other contributors: Dániel Berzsenyi, Gábor Döbrentei, Kazinczy, Károly Kisfaludy, János Mailáth, and Benedek Virág. Appeared irregularly. Title changed to Muzárion in 1827. Editors: Szemere and Kölcsey.

Életképek. Pest, 1843-December 31, 1848. A fashion periodical at its inception with the title Magyar Életképek, but name changed to Életképek in 1844 and content modified to include original belles-lettres and articles on literature and the fine arts. With Athenaeum (q.v.) it was the most important literary periodical in the 1840's. At first Adolf Frankenburg, editor and founder, stood apart from the literary controversy between the progressive Pesti Divatlap (q.v.) and the conservative Honderű (q.v.). It gained popularity by obtaining outstanding writers as contributors: János Arany, József Bajza, Gergely Czuczor, József Eötvös, András Fáy, József Gaál, Mór Jókai, Miklós Jósika, Zsigmond Kemény, Lajos Kuthy, Ignác Nagy, Sándor Petőfi, Ferenc Toldy, Mihály Tompa, and Gereben Vas. János Vajda's first poems appeared in it in 1844. In 1847, young revolutionary writers, led by Petőfi, who submitted some verses, became regular contributors. In the same year Frankenburg feared government reprisal and turned editorship over to Jókai. Editors: Frankenburg, 1843-July 1847, Jókai, July 1847-1848, with Petőfi's assistance after March 15, 1848.

Ellenőr. Pest, 1869-August 31, 1882. Political daily newspaper founded because of leftist dissatisfaction with the leadership of Kálmán Tisza. Directed sharp attacks against the Deák party. Editors: Lajos Csernátony (owner), 1869-1877; Sándor Palásthy, 1877; Árpád Hindy, beginning of 1878-1881; Lajos Láng, December 15, 1881-1882. Merged with Hon to become Nemzet (qq.v.).

Ellenzék. Kolozsvár, Transylvania, October 11, 1880-1944. Transylvanian Hungarian political newspaper with the longest and most important history. Also contained articles on literature, criticism, theater, and culture. Founded by Miklós Bartha. Managing editors: Mihály Magyary and then Ferenc Dobó; later László Grois, József Végh, István Sulyok, András Somodi, Jenő Szentimrei, and Imre Szeghő. László Szabédi, whose poems first appeared in its pages, was a staff member from 1931 to 1938.

Az Én Újságom. Budapest, December 15, 1889-1944. Children's illustrated weekly that played an important role in the development of juvenile literature in Hungary. Sought to influence young readers in the manner of Új Idők (q.v.). Ferenc Móra was a major contributor from 1905 to 1922. Numerous copies printed. Founded by Singer és Wolfner Publishers. Edited by Lajos Pósa until his death on July 9, 1914, when the editorship was assumed by Mózes Gaál.

Erdély. Marosvásárhely, Transylvania, December 24, 1870-December 30, 1876. Literary and critical periodical which served as the organ of Hungarian writers in Transylvania and Hungary who were opposed to the government. Founded by Lajos Tolnai. Editors: Tolnai, 1870-July 1, 1871; Antal Balás, 1871-May 1, 1872; Sámuel Kerekes, 1872-1876. Superseded by Maros-Vidék, which began as a weekly on January 4, 1877, and appeared on Thursdays and Sundays beginning in 1878.

Erdélyi Fiatalok. Kolozsvár (Cluj), 1930-1938. Socio-political periodical which served as the organ of a group of Hungarian writers in Rumania known as "the youth of Transylvania." Sought to initiate a social and cultural revolution which would provide knowledge about village and peasant life and lead to the alleviation of existing conditions. In its last years it followed the conservative and nationalistic views of the Hungarian party. Edited by Dezső László. In 1935 one of its factions founded Hitel, a periodical reflecting the views of Sándor Makkai and Gyula Szekfű.

Erdélyi Figyelő. Marosvásárhely, Transylvania, September 1879-1880. Lajos Tolnai's literary weekly. Appeared Sundays. Founded and edited by Tolnai under the auspices of the Kemény Zsigmond Társaság.

Erdélyi Helikon. Kolozsvár (Cluj), Rumania, 1928-1944. Illustrated literary and critical monthly. Became the most eminent organ of Hungarian literature in Rumania, and almost every important Hungarian writer in Transylvania contributed to it. Contained belles-lettres, studies of Hungarian and European literature and fine arts, and book reviews. Similar in format and content to Nyugat (q.v.), but occasionally published poems and stories with a more conservative outlook and style. Appeared ten times annually. Editors: Miklós Bánffy, Lajos Áprily; then Aladár Kuncz, László Kovács, and Károly Kós.

Erdélyi Híradó. Kolozsvár, Transylvania, December 29, 1827-November 10, 1848. First political newspaper of Transylvanian Hungarians. During its early years it contained mainly foreign news; beginning in 1841 it reported various kinds of news about Transylvania, Hungary, Pest, and other places. During the 1840's its contributors opposed the conservative views of Múlt és Jelen, established in 1841 in Kolozsvár and edited by Ferenc Szilágyi. Writings of Zsigmond Kemény and Lajos Kovács, whose lead articles expressed the views of the reform movement, first appeared in 1842. Pál Gyulai was a contributor 1846-1848. Appeared weekly 1827-1829; twice weekly 1830-1848. Name changed from Hazai Híradó on June 28, 1828. Suspended for six months during middle of 1831. Founded by Ferenc Pethe. Editorship taken over by Sámuel Méhes, along with Ferenc Szilágyi and Károly Szász, in October 1831. Edited by Zsigmond Kemény 1842-1843. Two supplements: Nemzeti Társalkodó, which contained literary and historical articles, and Vasárnapi Újság, which reported on educational matters.

Erdélyi Képes Újság. See Kolozsvári Élet.

Erdélyi Szemle. Kolozsvár, Transylvania, November 5, 1915-January 1921. Literary and critical review which supported the traditional forms of Hungarian literature in Transylvania. Sándor Reményik was a regular contributor. Became Pásztortűz (q.v.) on January 1, 1921.

Az Erő. Budapest, September 1917-1919. Monthly magazine for young people. Was published by Magyar Evangéliumi Diákszövetség.

Az Est. Budapest, April 16, 1910-1939. Political daily newspaper. Provided good foreign coverage; articles written by competent journalists. Looked upon as a major force in preparing the way for the revolutionary events of 1918-1919, along with Népszava and Világ (qq.v.). After fall of the Revolutionary Government, an extended bitter campaign was waged against it. Thereafter, efficiently and successfully operated following more moderate policies. Printed 150,000 copies daily; appeared at noon and reached provincial cities on the same day. On the 25th anniversary of its founding, it employed 365 in its editorial and publishing offices and presses. Founded, published, and edited by Andor Miklós. After failure of the Revolutionary Government, Miklós also founded Az Est Publications, the largest printing company in Hungary, by adding Magyarország (q.v.), Pesti Napló (q.v.), and Athenaeum Publishers to his holdings.

Esti Újság. Budapest, October 13, 1896-1917. First Hungarian penny-press newspaper. Purpose to provide readers with quick and accurate news about world events. Among its contributors: Ferenc Göndör, Sándor Hunyady, Gyula Krúdy, Béla Révész, Gyula Szini, and Gyula Török. Jenő Rákosi publisher and editor.

Esti Újság. Pozsony (Bratislava), Czechoslovakia, 1933-1940. Leftist newspaper which served Hungarians in Slovakia for a short period after Germany assimilated Czechoslovakia. Zoltán Fábry was a contributor.

Esztendő. Budapest, January 1918-February 1919. Literary monthly. Members of the Nyugat School among its contributors. Edited by Lajos Hatvany, with the assistance of Dezső Kosztolányi, Frigyes Karinthy, and Árpád Tóth.

Ezüstkor. See Appendix C.

Fáklya, 1919. See Világ.

Fáklya. Short-lived progressive newspaper or periodical published probably sometime in the 1920's by Hungarian writers living in Yugoslavia. Zsigmond Móricz was a contributor.

Der Feldarbeiter. See Világszabadság.

Félegyházi Hírlap. Kiskunfélegyháza, 1883-1903, 1919-1929, 1932, 1934-1938. Political daily. Title was Félegyházi Proletár 1911-1920, when it appeared weekly. Official organ of the Félegyháza Council of Industrial and Agricultural Workers March 23-June 28, 1919, and of the Kiskunfélegyháza Christian National Union Party from June 6, 1920. Edited in 1910's by József Vesszősi, Károly Mácsay, Sándor Molnár, and János Sallay.

Félegyházi Proletár. See Félegyházi Hírlap.

Felsőmagyarország. See Kassai Napló.

Felső-Magyarországi Minerva. Kassa, 1825-December 1836. Literary quarterly. Main purpose was to create a cultured reading public for Hungarian literature by publishing literary and learned articles of high quality. Involved in every major literary controversy of the time and followed the literary and learned life of Hungary and Europe critically. Ferenc Kazinczy was the most important contributor. Founded by József Dessewffy, a conservative, and edited by Mihály Dulházy, his secretary. Ceased after 10 volumes.

Fényszóró. Budapest, 1945-1946. Theater and film weekly intended to unify socialistic efforts in these art forms. Edited by Béla Balázs from fall of 1945.

Figyelmező. Pest, July 1, 1837-December 29, 1840. Critical supplement of Athenaeum (q.v.). Appeared Tuesdays. Edited by József Bajza, Ferenc Toldy, and Mihály Vörösmarty. Monthly supplement: Hírdető, an advertisement section, January 31-May 2, 1837.

Figyelő. Pest, January 1, 1871-June 30, 1876. Literary, fine arts, and critical weekly. Among its important contributors: Emil Ábrányi, Zsolt Beöthy, Sándor Endrődi, Gusztáv Heinrich, László Névy, Károly Szász, Károly Széchy, József Szinnyei, and László Torkos. Appeared Sundays. Published by Tamás Szana and Lajos Aigner. Editors: Szana, 1871-1875; Aigner, 1876.

Figyelő. Budapest, July 1, 1876-1889. First journal of Hungarian literary history and still an important reference. Articles on philology and literary history by the most important scholars of the time. Among its contributors in the early 1880's: Lajos Abafi, Dávid Angyal, Ferenc Badics, Zsigmond Bodnár, Benedek Csaplár, Sándor Endrődi, Zoltán Ferenczi, József Ferenczy, Gyula Haraszti, Adolf Havas, Gusztáv Heinrich, Benedek Jancsó, Virgil Koltai, Tamás Szana, Áron Szilády, József Szinnyei, and Kálmán Thaly. Each number contains Szinnyei's current bibliography. Appeared monthly, except July and August. Edited by Lajos Abafi.

Figyelő. Budapest, January 1905-December 15, 1905. Literary monthly which served as the organ of those young writers who wanted to create a new kind of literature in Hungary. Attacked the Christian-national literature of the time. Became the first center for the most important writers of the later Nyugat (q.v.); Endre Ady was a contributor. Edited by Ernő Osvát.

Földművelők Lapja. See Világszabadság.

Forum. Budapest, September 1946-1949. Literary, social science, and critical monthly. Addressed the intelligentsia and sought to unite Communists and non-party members for the socialistic revision of Hungarian society and culture. Most of the important writers and critics of the time were among its contributors. Specialists also wrote articles on many significant political, economics, and fine arts questions. Edited by György Vértes.

Fővárosi Lapok. Pest, January 1, 1864-April 5, 1903. Literary daily newspaper. Under the editorship of Kálmán Tóth its contributions came exclusively from members of the literary group opposed to the government. Among contributors to its first volume: János Arany, Mór Jókai, Lajos Tolnai, Mihály Tompa, János Vajda, and Károly Zilahy. Under the editorship of Károly Vadnay contributions were accepted from all writers in order to meet the demands of daily publication. Became an organ of true literary criticism under Vadnay. Zoltán Ambrus was a contributor. Editors: Tóth, 1864-April 1, 1867; Vadnay, 1867-1892; Tamás Szana, 1893-1894; Kálmán Porzsolt, 1895-1903.

Független Magyarország. Budapest, March 15, 1902-1919. Daily newspaper edited by Béla Rónay.

Futár. Newspaper begun on July 1, 1849, by József Bajza in Buda where he had returned from refuge with the government in Debrecen following its recapture from Austrian forces. Only one number. Bajza forced to flee to Szeged the day after its publication.

Garasos Tár. Leipzig, January 1, 1834-March 22, 1834. Weekly periodical patterned after the inexpensive and popular European fascicles intended to provide the public with useful information about everyday matters. Edited by Péter Vajda at the Wigand Press.

Génius. Arad, Rumania, January-August 1924. Leftist periodical founded by Zoltán Franyó to present a panorama of international events and to acquaint Hungarians living in Transylvania with the experiments occurring in modern art.

Gondolat. Budapest, 1936-1937. Literary and learned periodical which served as the legal organ of the Communist party in Hungary. Its aim was to oppose fascism and become representative of the people's front. Played an important role in the establishment of the March Front. Obtained contributions from progressive and leftist writers, including György Bölöni, József Darvas, Tibor Déry, Andor Endre Gelléri, Gyula Illyés, Attila József, Erik Molnár, Miklós Radnóti, Sándor Rideg, György Sárközi, and Zoltán Zelk. Closed down by police. Edited by György Vértes.

Győri Közlöny. Győr, 1857-1896. Economics and literary newspaper. Appeared twice weekly.

Háború Krónika. See Vasárnapi Újság, 1854-1921.

Hasznos Mulatságok. Pest, 1817-1842. Supplement to Hazai és Külföldi Tudósítások (1808-1839; continued by Nemzeti Újság, 1840-1848). Contents varied from belles-lettres to business news. Begun by István Kultsár. Edited by Péter Vajda in 1833. See also Aurora, 1822-1837.

Hazai és Külföldi Tudósítások. See Aurora, 1822-1837, and Hasznos Mulatságok.

Hazai Híradó. See Erdélyi Híradó.

Hazánk. Győr, January 3, 1880-September 19, 1889. Political weekly. Also articles on miscellaneous subjects. Géza Gárdonyi was a contributor.

Helikon. Kolozsvár (Cluj), Rumania, 1936-1937. Title under which Erdélyi Helikon (q.v.) appeared for the period. Published 10 times annually under the editorship of Károly Kós.

A Hét. Budapest, December 24, 1889-1924. Literary weekly and the most important Hungarian literary periodical before Nyugat (q.v.). Aimed to become the center of the new spirit of middle-class literature in Hungary. Widened Hungarian knowledge of West European literature, especially that of France. Mór Jókai and Kálmán Mikszáth were among its early contributors, but its character was determined by the younger generation of writers, including Zoltán Ambrus, Jenő Heltai, Hugó Ignotus, and Tamás Kóbor. Endre Ady published poems in it. Among its other contributors: Sándor Bródy, Andor Gábor, Ferenc Herczeg, Zsigmond Justh, Dezső Kosztolányi (1906-1916), Ferenc Molnár, István Petelei, Dezső Szomory, Lajos Tolnai, and Árpád Tóth. Opposed the policies of Nyugat (q.v.) after 1910. Editors: József Kiss until his death in 1921; Árpád Fehér, 1921-1924.

Hét Története. See Képes Családi Lapok.

Híd. Budapest, 1940-1944. Literary and fine arts weekly. Lajos Zilahy, chief editor; Miklós Kállay, editor. János Kodolányi, Zsigmond Móricz, László Németh, and Áron Tamási were among their associates.

Hírdető. See Figyelmező.

Hírnök. Pozsony, July 4, 1837-June 30, 1845. Political newspaper established under Austrian auspices to counteract the influence of Jelenkor (q.v.). Conservative, Catholic in outlook. In 1845 literary studies began to appear more frequently in its pages, including one on Sándor Petőfi's poetry. Its literary supplement, Századunk, which appeared twice weekly and was edited by Pál Csató, waged a controversy with Athenaeum (q.v.). Appeared twice weekly. Editors: József Orosz, 1837-1843; Ákos Birányi, 1844-1845. Subscriptions dropped greatly under Birányi's editorship. János Garay became a staff member in 1838.

Hitel. See Erdélyi Fiatalok.

A Hon. Pest, January 1, 1863-August 31, 1882. Popular left-centrist political daily owned and edited by Mór Jókai. Supported the political views of Kálmán Tisza in opposition to those of Ferenc Deák. Jókai was imprisoned on April 23, 1863, for one month because of an article; also barred from editorship for a time. Many of his novels and stories first appeared in it. Except for the period when György Urházy was editor after Jókai's difficulties with government authorities, the newspaper was edited by Jókai until 1882, when it merged with Lajos Csernátony's Ellenőr which then became Nemzet (qq.v.).

Honderű. Pest, January 7, 1843-April 2, 1848. Literary, fine arts, and fashion weekly. Sought mainly to meet the tastes of the aristocracy and to this end also published an edition in German entitled Morgenröthe. Contained poems, stories, travel sketches, fresco illustrations, and short biographies of Hungarians; also followed the activities of salons. Lajos Nádaskay's attack on Sándor Petőfi's poetry created a controversy in which the poet himself was involved. Appeared Saturdays 1843-1846, Tuesdays 1846-1847, and again Saturdays 1848. Editors: Lázár Petrichevich Horváth, 1843-June 1844; Nádaskay, July 1, 1844-1848. Petrichevich Horváth became its publisher on July 1, 1844.

Honművész. See Athenaeum.

Huszadik Század. Budapest, 1900-1919. Social science periodical which expressed the radical ideas of the Társadalomtudományi Társaság. Various writers opposing capitalism were found among its contributors who followed the policies of Népszava (q.v.) on a more intellectual level. Among its contributors: Gyula Pikler, Oszkár Jászi, Zsigmond Kunfi, Bódog Somló, Dezső Szabó, Ervin Szabó, Pál Szende, and Jenő Varga. Editorial support given to Endre Ady in the controversies attending the appearance of his poetry, especially by Lajos Hatvany. Two volumes annually. Edited by Gusztáv Gratz; finally by Jászi. Superseded by Századunk (see Appendix C).

Ifjak Szava. Budapest, September 14, 1919-1922. Pamphlet written for Hungarian youth by István Antal, Géza Bornemisza, and Ödön Mikecz.

Az Ifjú Gárda. Pozsony (Bratislava), Czechoslovakia, October 15, 1920-1921. Bi-weekly periodical for young workers. Published by Szocialista Ifjúmunkások Szlovenszkói Szövetsége. Founded under the editorship of Antal Szvraka.

Igazmondó. Pest, July 1, 1867-March 30, 1879. Political and literary weekly founded by Mór Jókai. At first represented leftist viewpoints and then those of the Government party. Awarded literary prize to Kálmán Mikszáth for "Ami a lelket megmérgezi" in 1871. Appeared Sundays.

Igaz Szó. See Appendix C.

Internationale. Budapest, 1919. Learned and literary monthly. Edited and published by Aladár Komját. Only nine numbers appeared.

Irodalmi Újság. Budapest, November 2, 1950-November 1956. Literary and critical weekly published by Magyar Írók Szövetsége. Besides belles-lettres it contained articles on literature, drama, and the fine arts aiming at the development of a socialist culture in Hungary; also articles on major foreign literary and cultural events. At the end of 1955 it became increasingly opposed to the established Communist régime and supported counterrevolutionary activities. Appeared bi-weekly to 1954; weekly from June 2, 1954. Béla Illés chief editor to September 22, 1956. Managing editors: Miklós Molnár, June 12, 1954-1955; György Hámos from March 5, 1955; Endre Enczi from November 12, 1955; Hámos from September 22, 1956. Also on editorial staff: Sándor Csoóri, 1953; Imre Sarkadi, 1954-1955.

Irodalmi Újság. Name frequently given to literary newspapers published abroad by émigré Hungarian writers and journalists. György Faludy has edited the one in London; Tamás Aczél the one in Paris since 1962.

Irodalom. Budapest, 1887. Literary and critical weekly which severely attacked conservative authors and learned writers, including János Arany, and members of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Kisfaludy-Társaság. Contained some accurate criticisms of the Hungary of the time. Ceased after six months. Founded and edited by Lajos Tolnai, with Menyhért Palágyi as his major assistant. Tolnai wrote most of the articles.

Jelenkor. Pest, January 1, 1832-June 29, 1848. István Széchenyi's political weekly. His articles taking issue with Lajos Kossuth's political viewpoints appeared from 1843 to 1848. Supported the ideals of language reform. First Hungarian newspaper to appear in modern folio form. Appeared Wednesdays and Saturdays; Sundays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays from January 2, 1848. Széchenyi wanted Károly Kisfaludy as its editor; on Kisfaludy's death he chose Mihály Helmeczy. Edited by Pál Királyi from April 18, 1848. János Garay a staff member for a time beginning in 1839. Its "Budapesti Napló" section written by Mór Jókai beginning in 1847.

Jövendő. Budapest, 1903-1906. Literary weekly which expressed Sándor Bródy's criticisms of contemporary Hungarian society. Contributors included some of the most progressive writers of the day. Precursor of the literary revolution stimulated bt Nyugat (q.v.). Begun and edited by Bródy, with the assistance of Zoltán Ambrus and Géza Gárdonyi.

Kakas Márton Albuma. See Nagy Tükör, 1856-1858.

Kalangya. Szabadka (Subotica), Yugoslavia, 1932-1944. Literary and critical periodical. Became the organ of living Hungarian authors in Yugoslavia and the center of Hungarian culture in that country. Readers mainly the intelligentsia in the Novi Sad region. Helped to develop friendly relations between Hungarians and Yugoslavians by including Hungarian translations of Yugoslavian writers in its pages. Appeared monthly. Founded by Kornél Szenteleky. After his death in 1933 it was edited by Károly Szirmai, Ede Draskóczy, Ferenc Kende, and, from December 1941, by János Herceg. Continued Vajdasági Írás (q.v.).

Kassai Munkás. Kassa, 1907-1937. Political newspaper begun as the organ of the Social Democratic party of Upper Northern Hungary, and the longestlived Communist paper of the period in Czechoslovakia. First to introduce the new Soviet literature and Czechoslovakian socialist literature to Hungarians in Czechoslovakia. Andor Gábor and Béla Illés were the most frequent contributors from among émigré Communist Hungarian writers. Czech-Hungarian contributors: Zoltán Fábry and Árpád Juhász. Appeared weekly; daily 1918-1919; then weekly; daily 1923-1930; then weekly until it ceased. Name eventually changed to Munkás. In the 1920's it was edited by Lajos Surányi, János Mácza, Ármin Seiden, and Géza Kassai.

Kassai Napló. Kassa, 1919-1929. Progressive political daily newspaper. Editors in 1910's: Sámuel Morvai, Miksa Szepesi, Zoltán Kendi, József Merényi, Gyula Aczél, László Dzurányi. Ignotus served as editor for a time in early 1920's. Title until January 8, 1919: Felsőmagyarország (subtitle: Kassai Napló).Title from June 10-28, 1919: Kassai Vörös Újság.

Kassai Vörös Újság. See Kassai Napló.

Katholikus Tudósító. See Magyar Kurir.

Kelet. Kolozsvár, 1871-1882.

Keleti Újság. Kolozsvár, 1919-1944. Political daily. Edited by József Szentmiklósi 1918-1919 and István Zágon from 1920.

Kelet Népe. See Appendix C.

Képes Családi Lapok. Budapest, January 1, 1879-1906. Literary periodical. Quickly became one of the most widely read illustrated magazines in Hungary. Gradually lost its popularity as the new literature developed in Hungary. At first appeared twice weekly; then Sundays from October 1879. Begun under the editorship of Imre Áldor. Edited by Lajos Tolnai for a time beginning in May 1891. Two supplements: Nővilág and Hét Története.

Képes Világ. Illustrated literary and educational periodical.

2 x 2. Short-lived art magazine begun in 1923 in Vienna by Lajos Kassák and Andor Németh.

Kisdobos. Budapest, 1952+. Children's periodical. Edited by Zoltán Zelk and Márta Gergely. Suspended October 1956-February 1957.

Kolozsvár. Kolozsvár, Transylvania. Newspaper founded and edited by István Petelei 1886-1898.

Kolozsvári Élet. Kolozsvár, Transylvania. Supplement to Erdélyi Képes Újság, both of which were edited by Sándor Bródy for a time in 1889.

Kolozsvári Hírlap. Kolozsvár, September 1908-1919. Political daily. Edited by Emil Nadányi 1908-1915, József Sebestyén November 30, 1915-1919, and Artur Balogh from January 31, 1919.

Kolozsvári Közlöny. Kolozsvár, Transylvania, 1856-1873. Political newspaper. Founded by Áron Berde, with the financial support of Imre Mikó. First edited by Károly Vida, who soon left the post and founded Magyar Futár.

Kolozsvári Szemle. See Pásztortűz.

Komádi és Vidéke. Komádi, November 5, 1933-June 30, 1935. Weekly published by Kálmán Sebestyén and Ferenc Takáts. Among its contributors: Dénes Barsi, István Sinka, and Pál Szabó. Banned by the police.

Kortárs. Budapest, 1947-1948. Literary, fine arts, and critical periodical. Sought to bring socialist thought in Hungary into line with Western middle-class views. Contributors were Social Democratic writers, artists, and critics. Contained poems, short stories, studies, and many illustrations of past and contemporary visual arts. Much attention to the successes of modern art. Lajos Kassák chief editor; László Hárs managing editor.

Kortárs. Budapest, September 1957+. Literary and critical periodical. Has become the representative periodical of Hungarian literary life by publishing the works of those authors and critics who seek to build socialism by literary means. Various styles are found therein. Little attention given to earlier authors. Editors: József Darvas and Gábor Tolnai, 1957-1959; Tolnai, 1960; István Király, 1961-1963; István Simon, 1964+, who has also served as literary editor since 1957.

Korunk. Kolozsvár (Cluj), Rumania, 1926-1940, 1957+. Social science and literary monthly established by Hungarian writers who emigrated to Rumania after the fall of the Revolutionary Government in 1919 and by Hungarian writers born in Rumania, for the purpose of advancing the objectives of radical socialism. Although under Communist influence, it published writings of non-party authors. Among its contributors: Béla Balázs, Zoltán Fábry, József Fodor, Gyula Illyés, Attila József, Lajos Kassák, János Kodolányi, Zsigmond Remenyik, Ervin Sinkó, and Áron Tamási. István Nagy one of its founders. Editors: László Dienes, 1926-1928; Gábor Gaál from 1929; Edgár Balogh and Ernő Gáll when publication resumed in 1957.

Kossuth Hírlapja. Pest, July 1-December 31, 1848. Most widely read political daily during the Revolution of 1848. Editorial viewpoint determined sub-rosa by Lajos Kossuth, whose most important articles also appeared in it. Its most significant period was September 1848 when Kossuth resigned as minister and publicly identified himself with it. Contained section on special subjects; reported foreign and domestic news. Generally did not concern itself with literature and literary matters. Among important contributors: Emil Ábrányi, János Garay, Adolf Gyurmán, Pál Hunfalvy, and Miklós Wesselényi. Appeared daily except Mondays. Edited by József Bajza. János Garay assistant editor August-September 1848. Ceased when the Hungarian government and its supporters fled from Pest to Debrecen at the advance of the Austrian army.

Koszorú, 1828-1841. See Tudományos Gyűjtemény.

Koszorú. Pest, January 4, 1863-June 25, 1865. János Arany's literary weekly. Aimed at the development of interest in and understanding of literary and general cultural matters. Its high quality critiques established its importance but prevented its becoming popular. Arany's Daliás idők was first published in it. Edited by János Arany. Most of its contributors came from Szépirodalmi Figyelő (q.v.), which it superseded.

Koszorú. Budapest, January 1879-1885, 1938-1944. Literary and fine arts gazette of the Petőfi-Társaság. As the organ of the literary opposition, it attacked the conservatism of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Kisfaludy-Társaság. Among its leading critics: Emil Ábrányi, Menyhért Palágyi, Gyula Reviczky, and Tamás Szana; praised the writings of Mór Jókai, Lajos Tolnai and János Vajda, and attacked those of Pál Gyulai, Károly Szász, and Zsolt Beöthy. Appeared monthly; became weekly in 1882. First series was begun under the editorship of Szana and ceased under that of Ábrányi. Continued Petőfi-Társaság Lapja (January 1, 1877-December 26, 1878).

Kritikai Lapok. Pest, 1831-1836. Literary and critical periodical with the purpose of opposing unscrupulousness, incompetence, self-adulation, partiality, and prejudice toward friends in literary activity and criticism. Expressed the liberal viewpoints of the first generation writers of the Age of Reform. Most of its articles were written by József Bajza. Edited by Bajza. Ferenc Toldy and Mihály Vörösmarty were his most important assistants.

Literariai Csarnok. See Rajzolatok a Társas Élet és Divatvilágból.

Ludas Matyi. Budapest, 1945+. Most important humor magazine in the period of the People's Democratic Republic. Views the building of socialism in Hungary for the advancement of the working class. First edited by György Gál; then by Szilárd Darvas, Andor Gábor, Béla Gádor, and László Tabi; by György Földes at present.

Ma. Budapest, November 15, 1916-1919; Vienna, 1920-1925. Lajos Kassák's literary and fine arts magazine. In the beginning it gave equal attention to the writings of radical authors seeking social change in Hungary and those of the avant-garde trying to create a revolution in Hungarian literature. After the Revolution of October 1918 and the departure of its revolution-minded contributors to found their own organ, it turned its attention to modern literary and artistic trends, including expressionism, cubism, dadaism, and surrealism. During the period of its publication in Vienna by Hungarian émigrés, communist writers had difficulties with Kassák and began their own periodical, Akasztott Ember (1922-1923). Edited by Kassák. Appeared monthly. Entitled Kortárs 1923-1925 for circulation in Hungary and neighboring countries. Continued A Tett; superseded by Dokumentum and Munka (qq.v.), both edited by Kassák.

Magyar Csillag. Budapest, October 1941-April 1944. Literary and critical monthly which continued Nyugat (q.v.). Aimed at becoming a writer's encampment in the defense of independent and free literary expression in Hungary. Gyula Illyés chief editor; Aladár Schöpflin associate editor. Entitled Magyar Csillag because use of the name Nyugat banned by the government.

Magyar Élet. Budapest, 1936-1944. Literary and political periodical which represented the views of the right wing of the Populist Movement. Edited by Károly Csuray, Bálint Magyar, Vilmos Fitos, Jr., and Gábor Szíj.

Magyar Életképek. See Életképek

Magyar Figyelő. Budapest, June 1, 1911-October 1, 1918. Political, fine arts, and learned periodical. Sought to defend the conservative-nationalist position by addressing itself to intellectuals; claimed to place national interests above those of class. Founded by István Tisza to counteract the influence of Huszadik Század and Nyugat (qq.v.). Tisza attacked Endre Ady in articles signed "Rusticus." Appeared semi-monthly. Edited by Ferenc Herczeg.

Magyar Futár. See Kolozsvári Közlöny.

Magyar Géniusz. Budapest, 1892-1903. Illustrated social, literary, and fine arts weekly. Originally aimed at becoming the gazette of the most distinguished salons, and during its first years was not very different from typical family weeklies. Contained religious and nationalistic articles supporting the existing social order. Changed its editorial viewpoint in June 1902 under the editorship of Ernő Osvát. Became the organ of the modern literary movement in Hungary. Among its contributors were the writers of the later Nyugat School, including Oszkár Gellért, Margit Kaffka, Simon Kemény, Gyula Krúdy, Viktor Cholnoky, and Gyula Szini. Editors: József Hevesi and Vilmos Karczag, 1892-1902; Osvát, June 1902-end of year; Gellért, Osvát, and Jenő Kovács from January 1903; Gellért from March 1903.

Magyar Hírlap. Budapest, March 21, 1891-1938. Political daily newspaper which served as the organ of Albert Apponyi's National party. Became important 1902-1914 under the editorship of Miksa Márkus, when Hugó Ignotus and Ferenc Móra were among its contributors. Editors: Gyula Horváth, 1891-1902; Márkus (Tivadar Hertzka new owner and chief editor), 1902-1914. Rezső Roóz* became editor in 1914. Jenő Heltai was a staff member for a time in the 1890's; Sándor Bródy and Géza Gárdonyi were editorial staff members for a time beginning in 1892. In 1926, it was purchased by Világ (q.v.), a banned radical political newspaper.

Magyar Ifjúság. See Szabad Ifjúság.

Magyar Közlöny. See Budapesti Közlöny.

Magyar Kurir. Budapest, September 11, 1911-1918. Newspaper. Appeared several times daily. Edited by Ödön Beniczky to June 1912, Béla Malcsiner June 27-December 31, 1912, Beniczky 1913, and Malcsiner 1914-1918. Continued Katholikus Tudósító.

Magyar Museum. Kassa, July 1, 1788-1792. Literary and critical quarterly established by Kassai Magyar Társaság to cultivate the development of Hungarian language and literature. Among members of the Society: Dávid Baróti Szabó, János Batsányi, and Ferenc Kazinczy. Kazinczy severed his connection with the periodical with its second number. Later numbers contained many articles on education and scientific subjects. Among its contributors: Ábrahám Barcsay, Sándor Báróczi, Gábor Dayka, József Gvadányi, Ádám Pálóczi Horváth, Gedeon Ráday, Kristóf Simai, László Szentjóbi Szabó, and Benedek Virág.

Magyar Nemzet. Budapest, 1938-1944 (when banned), May 1, 1945+. Political daily newspaper. Progressive and anti-fascist in outlook during World War II. Affiliated itself with the People's Front Movement and occasionally published articles by Communists. György Parragi was its leading commentator on current affairs at the time. Also contained literary works and criticism. Begun under the editorship of Sándor Pethő when he left Magyarság (q.v.); revived by Gyula Hegedüs; edited by Ernő Mihályfi since 1958. Organ of the People's Patriotic Front since November 1954.

Magyar Néplap. Budapest, December 1891-1914. Illustrated political, societal, and economics weekly of the Independent 1848 party. Edited and published by Aladár Buday 1911-1914.

Magyarok. Debrecen, April 1-June 1945; Budapest, July 5, 1945-April 1949. First literary and critical periodical to be published in Hungary after the end of World War II. For a time it was the only organ in which the reviving literature found expression. Contributors represented widely different views and styles. Did not establish unified character. Different writer's groups left and established their own periodicals, including Csillag, Válasz, 1946-1949, Kortárs, 1947-1948 (qq.v.), Újhold (see Appendix C), and Vigilia (see Appendix C). Appeared monthly. Editors: Géza Juhász, April-June 1945; László Kéry from July 1945; Emil Kolozsvári Grandpierre, 1947-1949.

Magyarország. Budapest, 1893-November 18, 1944. First evening political daily newspaper in Hungary. Underwent several changes in policy and ownership. During its first years it was the third and largest organ of the Independence and 1848 party. Between 1893-1905 it represented the more moderate views of the Gábor Ugron faction; after 1905 those of Ferenc Kossuth; and around the 1910's those of Gyula Justh. Lajos Holló was owner and chief editor to 1914; Márton Lovászy managing editor, 1899-1914. ¶ In 1914 it was purchased by Országos Hírlap Publisher. Supported the political views of Mihály Károlyi, leader of the Independence party. In 1914 Lovászy named chief editor and Andor Szakács managing editor, who was replaced by Elek Magyar in 1917. Publication suspended during the Revolution of 1918-1919. ¶ After the fall of the Revolutionary Government in 1919, it was purchased by Andor Miklós (see Az Est) with Magyar continuing as editor. Edited by Ernő Mihályfi 1936-1939. During his editorship, it served as the organ of the populist writers at the urging of Lajos Zilahy, who had served as its editor 1934-1936. Taken over by the government in 1939, it became a nationalistic paper under the editorship of Pál Szvatkó and Endre Barabás.

Magyarország és a Nagyvilág. Pest, October 1, 1865-June 29, 1884. Illustrated literary and educational weekly. Expressed liberal ideas and encouraged the views of writers opposing the government. Sándor Balázs was first editor. Others: Adolf Frankenburg from December 16, 1867; Arnold Vértesi from March 2, 1868; Károly Vadnay, January 2-April 23, 1870; Adolf Ágai from November 20, 1870; Antal Molnár from January 4, 1880; Nándor Borostyáni and Kálmán Mikszáth from December 3, 1882; Borostyáni from January 6, 1884. Two supplements: Pesti Hírlap, December 16, 1866-December 1867 (edited by Frankenburg; by Imre Áldor from March 4) and Pesti Hetilap, January 6, 1868-December 26, 1869 (edited by József Csukássi).

Magyarság. Budapest, December 15, 1920-1944. Political daily newspaper, an important voice of Hungarian Christian intellectuals and a strong advocate of nationalism. Under the editorship of István Milotay it attacked internationalists and the errors of Christian politicians. Milotay was managing editor, 1920-1934. Milotay left post and established Új Magyarság, an even more conservative daily; Sándor Pethő, who had founded Magyarság with Milotay, continued as its editor.

Magyar Sajtó. Vienna, 1855-1856; Pest, January 6, 1857-December 11, 1865. Political newspaper which was a nationalistic organ opposed to Hungarian aristocrats and the Austrian government. Most important voice of the opposition during the Age of Absolutism. Among its contributors: Miksa Falk, Aurél Kecskeméthy, Ferenc Toldy, and János Vajda. Editors: János Török, 1855-1856; Károly Hajnik, January 6, 1857-1862; Mór Jókai from March 13, 1862; János Vajda from January 1, 1863; Hajnik from April 1, 1865. Taken over by Magyar Világ on December 11, 1865.

Magyar Szalon. Budapest, 1883-1936. Illustrated social, literary, and critical monthly. Sought to publish the works of the most important representatives of Hungarian literature and culture in order to force foreign illustrated periodicals out of Hungary. Among its important contributors: Emil Ábrányi, Mór Jókai, József Kiss, Kálmán Mikszáth, Lajos Palágyi, Antal Radó, Gyula Reviczky, Endre Szabó, Károly Szász, Lajos Tolnai, and János Vajda. Among its better known editors: Ede Kabos, Izidor Kálnoki, Iván Hevesi, László Gerő, and Ibolya Jakabos. Continued as Új Magyar Szalon (1936-1942).

Magyar Szemle. Budapest, 1927-1944. Cultural periodical. Studies concerned with all important areas of life. Despite its conservative and nationalistic outlook, it endorsed basic progressive ideals. Opposed fascism. Many noted scholars, politicians, and specialists of the 1930's among its contributors. Their historical viewpoints were strongly influenced by the history of ideas approach. Three volumes annually. Owned by Magyar Szemle Társaság, a strong supporter of István Bethlen. Editors: Gyula Szekfű, 1927-1938; Sándor Eckhardt, 1939-1944.

Magyar Szépirodalmi Szemle. Pest, 1847. Weekly of the Kisfaludy-Társaság. Strict criticism by Ferenc Kölcsey and József Bajza enlivened its pages and stirred considerable controversy. Edited by János Erdélyi. Ferenc Toldy and Imre Henszlmann, members of the editorial board, exerted strong influence on policy.

Magyar Újság, 1867-1874. See Egyetértés.

Magyar Újság. See Nemzet.

Magyar Újság. Pozsony (Bratislava), Czechoslovakia, 1932-1938. Political daily which served as the organ of leftist Hungarian writers living in Czechoslovakia. Appeared with the support of the Czechoslovakian government. László Dzurányi editor; Dezső Győry managing editor.

Magyar Újság, 1944-1945. See Új Szó.

Magyar Vasárnap. See Prágai Magyar Hírlap.

Magyar Világ. See Magyar Sajtó.

Maros-Vidék. See Erdély.

A Mi Útunk. Debrecen, 1933-1934. Social science and literary review. Legal publication of the Social Democratic party in Debrecen; later of the illegal Debrecen Communist Workers' party. Among its contributors: László Gereblyés, Lajos Hollós Korvin, László Kardos, Zsigmond Remenyik, Péter Veres, Ilya Ehrenburg, and Valentin Kataev. Dezső Végh chief editor; Endre Bajomi Lázár literary editor.

Morgenröthe. See Honderű.

Múlt és Jelen. See Erdélyi Híradó.

Munka. Budapest, 1928-1939. Fine arts and social periodical. Contributors were leftists, mainly those with the views of the Social Democrats who sought to spread knowledge about socialistic culture. Often opposed the directorate of the Communist party. The communistic 100 % (q.v.) conducted attacks against it to counteract its influence on the working class. Edited by Lajos Kassák.

Munkás. See Kassai Munkás.

Munkás Heti Krónika. See Népszava.

Művelt Nép. Budapest, March 1950-October 1956. Cultural-political periodical published by the Ministry of People's Education. Appeared monthly 1950-1953; weekly 1954-1956. Edited by Sándor Erdei; then by József Darvas. Imre Sarkadi was an assistant editor in 1950; Erzsébet Galgóczi a staff member for a time.

Muzárion. See Élet és Literatúra.

Nagyasszony. See Prágai Magyar Hírlap.

Nagy Tükör. Pest, November 1856-February 1858. Mór Jókai's illustrated humor magazine. First humor magazine to be published after the Revolution of 1848-1849. Appeared five times weekly. Continued by Kakas Márton Albuma; its only number appeared in May 1858, and was superseded by Üstökös (q.v.) in August 1858. Another Nagy Tükör, a satirical weekly, published by Jókai and edited by Imre Visi, appeared March 1-June 30, 1879.

Nagy Tükör, 1879. See Nagy Tükör, 1856-1858.

Nagyvárad. Nagyvárad, July 1, 1870-1921, 1923-1934, 1940-1944. Political daily. Edited in 1910's by Manó Marton, János Papp, and Sándor Marót, with Nándor Hegedüs as chief editor.

Nagyváradi Napló. Nagyvárad, October 1, 1898-1920, 1931-1934. Political daily. Editors in 1910's: Nándor Hegedüs, Dezső Fehér, Béla Gombos, and Ernő Ligeti.

Nagyvilág. Budapest, December 1946-May 1948. Literary, fine arts, and learned periodical. Begun under editorship of László Gereblyés; ceased under Zoltán Hegedüs.

Nagyvilág. Budapest, October 1956+. Literary and critical monthly, reporting on the most important current literary and fine arts activities in foreign countries. Studies of the relations of Hungarian writers with those of other nations. Contains translations of belles-lettres. Suspended November 1956-March 1957. Published by Magyar Írók Szövetsége. Editors: Emil Kolozsvári Grandpierre, 1956; László Gereblyés, 1957-1959; László Kardos, 1959-1962; Gereblyés, 1963+.

Napkelet. Budapest, January 1923-1940. Literary and cultural periodical which sought to counteract the influence of Nyugat (q.v.) by encouraging writers and scholars with a nationalistic outlook. Reported regularly on the literary and visual arts, music, and theater. Sections on literary critiques remain important. First appeared 10 times annually on the first of the month (except July and August); monthly 1923-July 1927; semi-monthly October 1927-1929; monthly 1930-1940. Supported by Magyar Irodalmi Társaság. Cecile Tormay first editor. Others: János Horváth, János Keményfy, Antal Németh, and, finally, Miklós Kállay.

Nemzet. Budapest, September l, 1882-1899. Political newspaper which served as the organ of the Liberal party. One of the newspapers on which Dezső Szomory began his career. Never had more than 2000 subscribers; 800 in 1898. Formed by merging Hon and Ellenőr (qq.v.). Began with Mór Jókai as chief editor. Editors: Lajos Láng to 1883; Imre Visi to 1884; Sándor Hegedüs to 1890; Ödön Gajári to 1899. On October 1, 1899 it merged with Magyar Újság to become Magyar Nemzet, which Jókai edited until his death and which ceased on July 27, 1913.

Nemzeti Hírlap. Budapest, 1874-1879. Newspaper which tended to oppose the establishment. During its last year it supported the Government party. Editors: István Toldy, 1874-1878; István Márkus, 1879. József Kiss was a staff member for a time.

Nemzeti Társalkodó. See Erdélyi Híradó.

Nemzeti Újság. See Hasznos Mulatságok.

Nemzetőr. See Pesti Divatlap.

A Nép. Kassa (Košice), Czechoslovakia, 1921-1932. Political weekly which served as the organ of the National Christian Socialist party in Czechoslovakia. Contributors to the literary section were Slovakian Hungarian writers: István Hajdu, Olga Laczkó, Antal Marék, Árpád Nagy, László Ölvedy, Román Rezek, Ferenc Sziklay, and Lajos Tamás. Dezső Szabó was a contributor in 1921. Edited by János Reinel and Gusztáv Derfinyák.

Népakarat. See Népszava.

Néplap. Budapest, January 1894-1920. Weekly paper for agricultural workers. Published by the Ministry of Agriculture. Gyula Krúdy was an editor February 2-March 16, 1919.

Népszabadság. Budapest, November 2, 1956+. Political daily newspaper. Once the organ of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, but on February 1, 1958, became a part of the Communist press when its volume numbers were integrated with those of Szabad Nép (q.v.). Contains belles-lettres and literary and cultural articles intended to foster the development of a socialist culture in Hungary. Also includes notices and critiques of literature, theater, film, and fine arts. Edited by János Gosztonyi since June 30, 1965.

Népszava. Budapest, 1877+. Political newspaper. Except for the Communist papers published during 1918-1919, it was the only legal national paper supporting the Hungarian workers' movement published before 1945. In 1880 it became the central organ of the Hungarian General Labor Party as the successor to Munkás Heti Krónika. In 1890 it became the central organ of the Social Democratic party. ¶ In 1905 it printed 40,000 copies daily. Strongly Marxist. Played a vital role in influencing the working class before World War I. Important literary supplement appeared 1907-1908: Népszava Olvasótára. Literary section regularly published the works of important writers, including Endre Ady, Dezső Kosztolányi, Ferenc Molnár, and Gyula Török. Between the two World Wars its columns contained criticisms by leftists. Became the central organ of the National Council of Trade Unions in 1948. Appeared weekly to 1898; twice weekly in 1899; three times weekly to 1905; daily since 1905. Appeared as Népakarat December 1956-February 1958. Founded by Viktor Külföldi. Among its most important editors: Ernő Garami, Jakab Weltner, Béla Somogyi, Illés Mónus, Árpád Szakasits, and István Száva. József Timmer assumed editorial post in 1964.

Népszava 0lvasótára. See Népszava.

Néptanítók Naptára. Győr, 1886-1888. Calendar for village schoolteachers. Published and edited by Géza Gárdonyi.

Nógrádi Hírlap. See Nógrádi Lapok.

Nógrádi Lapok. Balassagyarmat, 1873-1906. Political, societal, and economics weekly. Continued in 1906 by Nógrádi Hírlap, which became the organ of the Socialist party on April 20, 1919, then of the Communist party on July 29, 1919. Edited in 1910's by Gyula Majtényi.

Nővilág. Pest, January 8, 1857-1864. Literary and fashion periodical. Began with 2000 subscribers, unusually high for the time. Appeared on Wednesdays at first; Sundays from 1858; three times monthly from 1862; weekly from January 1, 1864. Editors: János Vajda, 1857-1863; Győző Dalmady from October 1, 1863; Vajda, 1863-1864.

Nővilág. See Képes Családi Lapok.

Nyelv- és Irodalomtudományi Közlemények. Kolozsvár (Cluj), Rumania, 1957+. Scholarly journal of the Hungarian language and literature appearing in Rumania. Published by the Linguistics Institute of the Academy of the Rumanian People's Republic. Edited by Elemér Jancsó; then by István Nagy.

Nyugat. Budapest, January 1, 1908-August l, 1941. Most important literary and critical periodical in the development of new tendencies in 20th-century Hungarian literature. Encouraged literary qualities present in the 1890's by cultivating the impressionist-symbolist forms of modern West European literature in its pages. Dealt with the problems of contemporary cities and civilization and with new ethical concepts. Transmitted much knowledge of liberalism and contemporary West European literature, especially that of France, to Hungarian culture and literature. Gave its name to those writers who followed its literary tenets and its intellectual and social orientation: the Nyugat School. Endre Ady was an important contributor and influence during its first decade. Its character was determined by Hugó (Veigelsberg) Ignotus and Ernő Osvát. Among its more important contributors: Endre Ady, Zoltán Ambrus, Mihály Babits, Lajos Biró, Viktor Cholnoky, Géza Csáth, Artur Elek, Mihály Földi, Milán Füst, Imre Halász, Lajos Hatvany, Jenő Heltai, Gyula Juhász, Margit Kaffka, Frigyes Karinthy, Lajos Kassák, Simon Kemény, Dezső Kosztolányi, Gyula Krúdy, Aladár Kuncz, Géza Laczkó, Menyhért Lengyel, Zsigmond Móricz, Árpád Pásztor, Béla Révész, Zoltán Somlyó, Aladár Schöpflin, Dezső Szabó, Ernő Szép, Géza Szilágyi, Gyula Szini, Dezső Szomory, Józsi Jenő Tersánszky, and Árpád Tóth. Appeared semi-monthly; monthly, 1935-August 1941. Suspended July 16-October 1919. Founded by Osvát, Ignotus, and Miksa Fenyő, under the editorship of Ignotus. Ignotus chief editor to 1929. Editors: Zsigmond Móricz, Mihály Babits, and Oszkár Gellért to 1933; Babits and Gellért, 1933-1939; Babits, 1939-1941. Superseded by Magyar Csillag (q.v.) on the death of Babits.

Orpheus. Kassa, January 1790-September 1791. Ferenc Kazinczy's literary and historical periodical. Purpose to develop reasonable thinking, to perfect the Hungarian language, and to cultivate Hungarian history. Contained mostly poetry, which was contributed by almost every important poet of the time: Pál Ányos, Gábor Dayka, János Földi, Gedeon Ráday, József Rájnis, Miklós Révai, and Benedek Virág. Also contained translations, including those of works written by Anacreon, Catullus, Virgil, Gessner, Klopstock, Helvetius and Rousseau, and a section on the Hungarian language, mainly its orthography. Intended as monthly but only eight numbers appeared. Begun and edited by Kazinczy under the pseudonym Vince Széphalmi when he severed his connection with Magyar Museum (q.v.).

Országos Hírlap. Budapest, October 1898-January 1899. Political newspaper founded to advance the concepts of political liberalism. Contained a literary section. Founded and edited by Kálmán Mikszáth, with the assistance of István Tömörkény. On January 26, 1899, it merged with Pesti Hírlap, 1878-1944 (q.v.).

Ország-Világ. Budapest, January 1, 1880-1938. Illustrated literary and educational periodical. Noted for its beautiful illustrations. About 1930 its contents became social and economic. Among its contributors: Emil Ábrányi, Sándor Endrődi, Elek Gozsdu, Ödön Iványi, Kálmán Mikszáth, István Petelei, Antal Radó, Gyula Reviczky, Károly Szász, and Lajos Tolnai. Appeared bi-weekly. Editors: Ede Somogyi, Zsolt Beöthy, József Szinnyei, Jr., Kornél Ábrányi, Jr., Alajos Degré, Elek Benedek, Antal Váradi, György Zsigmond Falk, and Iván Hűvös.

Pandora. Budapest, February 25-October 1927. Literary, fine arts, and critical periodical. Among its contributors: György Bálint, József Erdélyi, László Fenyő, Andor Endre Gelléri, Pál Gulyás, Pál Ignotus, Endre Illés, Géza Juhász, László Kardos, Pál Kardos, János Kodolányi, Sándor Márai, Károly Pap, György Sárközi, Kálmán G. Szabó, Lőrinc Szabó, and Antal Szerb. Edited by Lőrinc Szabó. Sárközi assisted with the editing. Also sponsored publication of Lőrinc Szabó's translation of Paul Verlaine's selected poems and Szabó's A Sátán műremekei, Ferenc Pákozdy's Embermérleg, and Andor Simon's Álomföld, a volume of poems.

Pannónia. Kassa, 1872.

Panorama. Vienna, November 1921-October 1923. Illustrated weekly. Purpose to give voice to progressive Hungarian writers in Hungary and neighboring countries. Made possible the publication of works of writers with a wide range of characteristics and views. Writings of Lajos Hatvany and Andor Gábor, Béla Révész and Béla Balázs, Lajos Barta and József Nádass, and Lajos Kassák and Frigyes Karikás appeared alongside each other. Writers of the Nyugat School were represented by Milán Füst, Frigyes Karinthy, Gyula Krúdy, Zsigmond Móricz, and Ernő Szép; Social Democratic writers by Béla Bacsó, Győző Gergely, Andor Peterdi, and Zseni Várnai; and Transylvanian writers by Zoltán Franyó, Gábor Gaál, and József Nyírő. Tibor Déry was also a contributor. Ferenc Jankó was publisher and managing editor.

Pásztortűz. Kolozsvár, Rumania, January 9, 1921-1944. Illustrated literary and critical periodical which served as the organ of Hungarian writers living in Rumania. Played an important role in establishing Hungarian literary life. Was the center of Hungarian intellectual life until the founding of Erdélyi Helikon (q.v.) in 1928. Also reported the most important literary events occurring in Hungary. Printed 53,150 copies in 1925. Appeared semi-monthly (slightly irregular). Actually founded as Kolozsvári Szemle in August 1915 by László Nagy. Name changed to Erdélyi Szemle (q.v.) in 1916 and then to Pásztortűz. Most important editors: Sándor Reményik (January 1, 1922-August 1, 1923), József Nyírő, Lajos György, Lajos Áprily, Domokos Gyallay, and Jenő Dsida.

Pesti Divatlap. Pest, 1844-December 24, 1848. Weekly newspaper which supported the political viewpoints of Lajos Kossuth and aimed to become the literary organ of the liberal-minded members of the lesser nobility. Reported on the activities of the Nemzeti Kör, a circle of liberal intellectuals in Pest headed by András Fáy (1841, 1843-1845) and Mihály Vörösmarty (1842). Gave space to promising new writers. Mihály Tompa was a frequent contributor. Published 25 poems, four prose translations, and many brief criticisms and observations of Sándor Petőfi. Founded and edited by Imre Vahot. Petőfi served as assistant editor July 1, 1844-Spring 1845. Continuation of Regélő Divatlap (q.v.). Name changed to Budapesti Divatlap, and its supplement, Nemzetőr, begun, near end of June 1848. Major opposition paper: Honderű (q.v.).

Pesti Futár. Budapest, April 30, 1908-1915, 1917, 1925-1938. Weekly newspaper. Edited and published by Sándor Nádas.

Pesti Hetilap. See Magyarország és a Nagyvilág.

Pesti Hírlap. Pest, January 2, 1841-July 8, 1849. Lajos Kossuth's political newspaper, in which he began agitations through his lead articles. József Eötvös and András Fáy also contributed articles supporting his revolutionary viewpoints. Attention given to foreign and domestic news and the activities of associations and organizations. Number of subscribers quickly grew to 5000. Suspended January 24-April 23, 1849, because of Austrian occupation. Appeared Wednesdays and Saturdays 1841-1845; four times weekly from April 1, 1845; six times weekly from March 7, 1848. Founded under the editorship of Kossuth with the support of Lajos Landerer, publisher and printer. Edited by Kossuth until July 2, 1844, when Austrian authorities removed him. Other editors: László Szalay from July 4, 1844; Antal Csengery from July 1, 1845; Mór Jókai, January 3-5, 1849; Károly Obernyik from April 25, 1849; Jókai from May 1, 1849. Zsigmond Kemény served as a staff member 1847-1848. Continuation of Sürgöny (see Rajzolatok a Társas Élet és Divatvilágból).

Pesti Hírlap, 1866-1867. See Magyarország és a Nagyvilág.

Pesti Hírlap. Budapest, December 25, 1878-December 1944. Political daily newspaper. Independent politically but supported the policies of the Government party. Conservative-liberal in viewpoint between the two world wars. Its supplement, Pesti Hírlap Vasárnapja, often published the writings of leftist authors such as Lajos Nagy and Zoltán Zelk, as well as the established writers of the time. The newspaper helped Kálmán Mikszáth, who was a staff member 1881-1903, to establish his popularity. Among other contributors: Mór Jókai, Géza Gárdonyi, János Vajda, Károly Eötvös, Pál Gyulai, Gyula Reviczky, Dezső Szomory, Gergely Csiky, Ferenc Herczeg, Zoltán Ambrus, Ferenc Molnár, Jenő Heltai, Sándor Bródy, István Tömörkény, Gyula Krúdy, Zsigmond Móricz, Dezső Kosztolányi, Ferenc Móra, and Sándor Márai. Circulation reached 8000 during its first year, unusually high for the time. Introduced many innovations in format, structure, style, and subject matter; for example, departed from emphasis on lead articles to the reporting of news. Founded by Károly Légrády. Editors : József Csukássi, Nándor Borostyáni, Géza Kenedy, Károly Légrády, Imre Légrády, József Schmittely, Gusztáv Lenkey, Ottó Légrády, Jenő Bende, and Lajos Berecz. Strongest competitor: Budapesti Hírlap (q.v.), which had 30,000 subscribers in 1890 as compared with the 35,000 of Pesti Hírlap.

Pesti Hírlap Vasárnapja. See Pesti Hírlap,1878-1944.

Pesti Napló. Budapest, March 9, 1850-1939. Political daily newspaper established as the organ of the middle-aristocracy and its intellectuals by Ferenc Császár. Opposed Austrian absolutism by advocating passive resistance. Simon Bánffay wrote the column on foreign news; he was also editor in 1850 but was removed by police authorities. Among its contributors: Antal Csengery, János Erdélyi, Miksa Falk, Pál Gyulai, and László Szalay. Editors: Bánffay, 1850; József Szenvey, 1851; Emil Récsey, 1851-1853; József Török, February 1853-1855; Zsigmond Kemény, June 1855-December 1856, December 1857-1858; Pál Királyi, 1858-1860; Kemény, 1860-1868. After the Compromise of 1867 it served as the leading organ of the Ferenc Deák party, but opposed him after 1875. In the 1870's the newspaper helped to prepare the way for a settlement between Austria and Hungary. Zoltán Ambrus was a contributor; Dezső Szomory a staff member from 1906 until it ceased. Editors: Lajos Urváry, December 1, 1868-1887; Kornél Ábrányi, Jr., December 10, 1887-1897; Ambrus Neményi, 1897-1901; József Surányi from 1901. Purchased by Lajos Hatvany in 1917 who edited it until the fall of the Revolutionary Government in 1919. ¶ Purchased by Andor Miklós in 1920 and made a part of Az Est Publications (see Az Est).Liberal in viewpoint from 1920 to 1939. Members of the Nyugat School among its contributors, including Mihály Babits, György Bálint, Frigyes Karinthy, Dezső Kosztolányi, Zsigmond Móricz, and Lőrinc Szabó. Géza Laczkó associate editor 1923-1939. Edited by Mihály Földi from 1930.

Petőfi-Társaság Lapja. See Koszorú, 1879-1885.

A Polgár. Budapest, May 16, 1905-1913. Political daily. Edited by Sándor Szerdahelyi 1911-1913.

Politikai Újdonságok. See Vasárnapi Újság, 1854-1921.

Prágai Magyar Hírlap. Prague, 1922-1938. Daily newspaper which represented the views of middle-class Hungarians living in Czechoslovakia. Declared itself to be independent politically. Editors: László Dzurányi, 1922-1932; Géza Forgách, 1932-1938. Weekly literary supplement: Magyar Vasárnap. This supplement was established by Zoltán Fábry, but he was soon dismissed because of his leftist political activities. Also published an economics supplement bi-weekly and Nagyasszony monthly.

Proletár. Vienna, 1920-January 1922. Newspaper of the Hungarian Communist party established by expatriates in Vienna. Émigré Hungarian Communists, including Béla Kun and Jenő Landler, continued their agitations in it. Circulated illegally in Hungary. Also published Andor Gábor's verses and prose writings. Editors: László Rudas, György Lukács, and József Pogány.

Proletárirodalom. See Sarló és Kalapács.

Protestáns Szemle. Budapest, 1889-1944. Learned, literary, and critical journal. In addition to theological studies and articles on church history, it gave regular attention to literary questions, especially in its critical section. Also studies of the theater, music, and other fine arts. Provided a good picture of Protestant intellectualism in Hungary. Among its contributors: Lajos Áprily, László Németh, and János Kodolányi. Appeared monthly, excepting July and August. Founded by Magyar Protestáns Irodalmi Társaság. Editors: Béla Kenessey, Farkas Szőts, László Ravasz, Gyula Madai, Jenő Veress, Ferenc Zsinka, Lajos Áprily, and, finally, Dezső Kerecsényi.

Rajzolatok a Társas Élet és Divatvilágból (best known as Rajzolatok):Pest, January 3, 1835-June 30, 1839. One of the first literary fashion periodicals in Hungary. Contained news about the social life of Pest-Buda, poems, stories, articles on the arts, education and fashions, and jokes. Its conservative outlook was represented by such contributors as Pál Csató (who was also assistant editor of Hírnök [q.v.] from 1837), László Kelmenfy, Endre Kunoss, and Ignác Nagy (who opposed József Bajza, Ferenc Toldy, Mihály Vörösmarty, and the Athenaeum [q.v.]), but also published the writings of Adolf Frankenburg, János Garay, and Teréz Karacs. Appeared on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Edited by János Munkácsy. Competed with Regélő Pesti Divatlap (q.v.) and German fashion periodicals. From July 2, 1839, continued by Munkácsy as Buda-Pesti Rajzolatok, a political weekly, and then, in 1840, changed its title to Sürgöny, which also had a literary supplement entitled Literariai Csarnok. Lajos Landerer, printer and publisher, purchased Sürgöny in 1841 and continued it as Pesti Hírlap, 1841-1849 (q.v.).

Református Szemle. Kolozsvár, January 10, 1908-1914, 1920-1926, 1929-1944, 1956-1958, 1960, 1964, 1968+. Weekly published by Erdélyi Református Egyházkerület. Edited by László Ravasz 1919-1921, Sándor Makkai 1921-1925 and again in 1940.

Regélő. See Regélő Pesti Divatlap.

Regélő-Honművész. See Regélő Pesti Divatlap.

Regélő Pesti Divatlap. Pest, 1833-1844. First Hungarian fashion newspaper. Took fashion pictures from foreign publications. Articles quite ordinary. Contained translations, brief news-notes, anecdotes, biographies of famous women (200 women among 700 subscribers), and poems by new poets. Published some of János Garay's stories, and was the first to publish dramatic criticism regularly. Among other contributors: Pál Gyulai, János Erdélyi, Adolf Frankenburg, Imre Henszlmann, and Péter Vajda. Appeared on Thursdays and Saturdays. First title: Regélő. Founded and edited by Gábor Mátray. Edited by Erdélyi January 1, 1842-June 29, 1844. Garay served as assistant editor 1833-1837 and 1842-1844. Continued Regélő-Honművész. Superseded by Pesti Divatlap (q.v.).

A Reggel. Érsekújvár, Komárom; Pozsony (Bratislava), Czechoslovakia, 1922-1933. Political and literary daily newspaper edited by the politicians and publicists of the Czechoslovakian Agrarian and Social Democratic party. In later years supported the government. Among its contributors: Sándor Antal, Lajos Barta, Ferenc Benjámin, Zoltán Fábry, Sándor Földes, Gyula Morvay, József Sellyei, and Béla Szabó.

Respublica. Pest, June-July 1849. Weekly. Published A Magyar Nemzeti Függetlenségi Nyilatkozat, János Arany's "Ápril 14-ke," and two of Sándor Petőfi's poems urging Hungarians to war. János Erdélyi managing editor; succeeded by István Szokolai.

Sarló és Kalapács. Moscow, December 1929-October 1937. Political and literary periodical established in the Soviet Union by expatriate Hungarian writers and journalists. Mainly concerned with political issues but had a literary section and from 1934 a literary supplement entitled Proletárirodalom. Distributed illegally in Hungary. Editors through its years: Dezső Bokányi, László Farkas, Lajos Gavró, Sándor Gergely, Pál Hajdu, Antal Hidas, Béla Illés, Béla Kun, József Lengyel, Lajos Magyar, Ferenc Münnich, Imre Révész, and László Rudas. Published the writings of almost every Hungarian writer and journalist living in the Soviet Union (especially Béla Balázs and Jenő Varga) as well as the works of several living in Hungary and the West (especially Aladár Komját). Periodical also sponsored a series entitled Sarló és Kalapács Könyvtára, 1930-1937, which included the works of Antal Hidas, Béla Illés, Mózes Kahána, Frigyes Karikás, Lajos Kiss, Aladár Komját, József Lengyel, Emil Madarász, János Román, and Máté Zalka. Continued by Új Hang, 1938-1941 (q.v.).

Sárospataki Füzetek. Sárospatak, 1857-1869. Protestant learned and literary quarterly. Part of János Erdélyi's "A hazai bölcsészet történelméhez," a study, first appeared in it. Founded by Erdélyi and edited by him 1857-1859 and 1864-1866. Other editors could not sustain the high quality he gave it.

Somogyi Hírlap. See Somogyi Vörös Újság.

Somogyi Munkás és Somogyi Vörös Újság. See Somogyi Vörös Újság.

Somogyi Vörös Újság. Kaposvár, May 3-June 8, 1919. Evening newspaper of the Somogyvármegye Socialist party. Begun in 1903 with the title Somogyi Munkás és Somogyi Vörös Újság as continuation of Somogyi Hírlap.

Sorsunk. See Appendix C.

Sürgöny. See Pesti Hírlap, 1841-1849, and Rajzolatok a Társas Élet és Divatvilágból.

Szabad Ifjúság. Budapest, August 1950-1956. Central organ of the Working Youths Federation. Dealt with topical daily events and the problems of youth. Began as weekly; became daily in August 1951. Edited by Éva Katona 1950-1954; by Imre Csatár 1954-1956. Erzsébet Galgóczi staff member for a time. In 1957 superseded by Magyar Ifjúság, the newspaper of the Hungarian Communist Youth Federation.

Szabad Nép. Budapest, February 1-May 1942, September 1944, March 25, 1945-October 1956. Political newspaper which first served as the illegal organ of the Hungarian Communist party. Police seized its press and editors and destroyed its organization in May 1942. Edited by Ferenc Rózsa and Zoltán Schönherz during this period. Reappeared in September 1944 under the editorship of Márton Horváth, this time in printed form, not in its earlier mimeographed format. After the liberation of Budapest, it resumed legally on March 25, 1945, as the organ of the Communist party, under the leadership of József Révai, who served as chief editor until 1950. Edited by a board led by Márton Horváth 1950-1951; by Oszkár Betlen 1951-1953; by Horváth 1953-1956. Became the central organ of the Hungarian Working People's party, and its articles pointed to the errors of the 1950's. Continued by the newly formed Hungarian Socialist Workers' party as Népszabadság (q.v.) in November 1956.

Szabadság. Budapest, 1932-1944. Political weekly of the National Radical party. Its literary sections directed by Géza Féja. Published writers with widely divergent viewpoints and styles, including István Sinka and Kálmán Sértő (populists), Lajos Nagy, Andor Gábor, Gyula Illyés, József Füsi, Jenő Katona, János Kodolányi, Zsigmond Móricz, Sándor Sásdi, Pál Simándy, Mihály Tamás, Áron Tamási, and Józsi Jenő Tersánszky.

Szabad Szó. Szentes, 1899-1900; Budapest, 1901-February 1952. Weekly political newspaper. At the beginning of the 20th century it served as one of the organs of the agrarian-socialist movement; by the end of its first decade it was no longer connected with the peasant problem. Pál Szabó became editor in 1938, when the National Peasant party was formed, and served until 1944. Published the writings of leftist populists, including József Darvas, Ferenc Erdei, and Péter Veres and of representatives of the Smallholders' party such as István Dobi. Banned in April 1944. Revived in March 1945 as the central organ of the National Peasant party. Editors during this period: Iván Boldizsár, József Darvas, Sándor Erdei, and, finally, László Nánási. Also published an evening edition 1945-1949.

Századok. See Athenaeum.

Századunk. See Hírnök.

Századunk, 1926-1939. See Appendix C.

100 %. Budapest, August 15, 1927-August 1930. Literary, fine arts, and political periodical begun as a legal organ under the secret direction of Hungarian Communists. At first published mainly articles with cultural themes, poems and stories, and because of police surveillance, some formally and obscurely written articles on political subjects. Sought to acquaint Hungarian readers with revolutionary literature, mainly of the Soviet Union. Among its contributors in Hungary: János Antal, Ferenc Danzinger-Agárdi, László Gereblyés, Sándor Gergely, Sándor Haraszti, József Madzsar, Erik Molnár, Lajos Nagy, József Pápa, Sándor Schönstein, and Ernő Tihanyi. Among émigré Hungarian Communists whose writings appeared under pseudonyms: Elek Bolgár, Andor Gábor, Aladár Komját, Béla Kun, György Lukács, and József Révai. Edited by Aladár Tamás. Ceased, after thirty numbers, when Tamás was seized by police. Last printing totaled 2900 copies.

Szeged és Vidéke. Szeged, 1902-1919. Evening political daily independent of all parties. Edited in 1910's by Ármin Balassa, József Frank, and Lajos Bibó.

Szegedi Híradó. Szeged, May 1, 1859-1925. First daily newspaper in Szeged. Became the official organ of the Government party in Szeged after the Compromise of 1867. Among its contributors: Károly Zilahy and Lajos Tolnai. Appeared twice weekly 1859-1869; three times weekly 1870-1878; daily 1879-1925. Founded by Zsigmond Burger and Győző Kempelen, who was twice imprisoned during 1860-1861 for violations of press laws. Edited by Gárdonyi February 1888-May 5, 1889.

Szegedi Napló. Szeged, January 1878-1922, 1925-March 1944. Daily newspaper in Szeged which at first expressed the ideals of 1848 and independence and later those of liberalism. Begun by Lukács Enyedi. Most important editors: Zsigmond Kulinyi, Antal Békefy, Géza Vass, and István Ortutay. Among major authors beginning their careers on its editorial staff: Kálmán Mikszáth (1878-1880), István Tömörkény (beginning in 1891), and Ferenc Móra (forced to leave the staff on May 8, 1919). Géza Gárdonyi was a staff member, 1890-1891.

Szépirodalmi Figyelő. Pest, 1860-1862. János Arany's aesthetic, literary, and critical periodical. Purpose to scrutinize critically the growing body of Hungarian literature being neglected by other periodicals. Most contributors associated with the Deák party, including Pál Gyulai, Zsigmond Kemény, József Lévay, Ferenc Salamon and Károly Szász, but writers from the opposition also published, including Kálmán Thaly, Lajos Tolnai, Károly Vadnay, Arnold Vértesy, and Károly Zilahy. Superseded by Koszorú, 1863-1865 (q.v.).

Szépirodalmi Lapok. Pest, 1853-1854. Pál Gyulai's literary periodical. Among major contributors: János Arany, Antal Csengery, János Erdélyi, Gyulai, Zsigmond Kemény, Károly Szász, and Mihály Tompa. Appeared twice weekly. Edited by Albert Pákh.

Szépliteraturai Ajándék. See Tudományos Gyűjtemény.

Szép Szó. See Appendix C.

Szion. See Athenaeum.

Szivárvány. Budapest, June 1, 1946-August 14, 1948. Social Democratic weekly. Anna Kéthly was managing editor until February 28, 1948; then Rezső Szirmai. Géza Laczkó assisted with the editing.

Tanítóbarát. Győr, 1886-1888. Géza Gárdonyi's journal intended to inform Hungarians about the wretched conditions under which teachers in the villages had to carry on their work. Appeared monthly.

Tanú. See Appendix C.

Társalkodó. Pest, January 4, 1832-June 30, 1848. Literary supplement to Jelenkor (q.v.) with articles on various subjects. Reached apex when István Széchenyi was a contributor. Ferenc Kölcsey was also an important contributor. Appeared Wednesdays and Saturdays; only Fridays in 1848. Editors: József Bajza, 1832-1837; Mihály Helmeczy, 1837-1848; Pál Királyi, April 18-June 30, 1848. János Garay was a staff member for a time beginning in 1839.

Testvér. Vienna, 1924. Periodical published and edited by Ervin Sinkó.

A Tett. Budapest, 1915-1916. Lajos Kassák's literary and critical monthly. First periodical in Hungary which aimed directly at the cultivation of the new literary "isms" developing in West European literature. Advocated socialism as means of reforming Hungarian society. Ceased when banned by the police because of Aladár Komját's anti-war articles. Kassák continued it as Ma (q.v.) in the same year.

Tiszántúl. Debrecen, 1941-1942. Political daily representing the viewpoint of the Hungarian Reformed Church. Edited by József Kovács.

A Toll. Budapest, 1914, 1929-1938. Literary and critical weekly. Among early contributors: Sándor Bródy, Andor Gábor, Gyula Juhász, Frigyes Karinthy, Dezső Kosztolányi, Ferenc Molnár, Lajos Nagy, and Zoltán Somlyó. György Bolza edited nos. 1-6, Vilmos Kaczér nos. 7-21, when it ceased because of World War I. Revived by Kaczér in 1929. Became one of the most militant organs of the progressive writers, especially those with an urbane outlook. Among its contributors: Attila József, Gyula Krúdy, György Sárközi, and Béla Zsolt, who also served as chief editor for a time.

Tudományos Gyűjtemény. Pest, January 1817-December 1841. Critical, historical, and literary journal. Pál Szemere and Gábor Döbrentei played leading roles in its early years, especially in its literary supplement, Szépliteraturai Ajándék (1821-1827), edited by Szemere. Early numbers supported the legitimacy of literary criticism and the need for the reform of the Hungarian language. Soon became the center for the viewpoints of József Bajza, Ferenc Toldy, and Mihály Vörösmarty. Vörösmarty edited the new literary supplement, Koszorú (1828-1841), from 1828 to 1832. This supplement, along with Aurora, 1822-1837 (q.v.), was the most important periodical of young writers in Pest. The journal turned its attention to educational matters in 1834. Began as monthly; three times annually beginning in April 1834; quarterly beginning in 1837. Founded by György Fejér, with the financial assistance of János Trattner, Jr. Editors: Fejér, 1817; András Thaisz, 1818-1827; Vörösmarty, 1828-1832; László Vass, 1832; István Horvát, 1833-1836; István Károlyi, 1837-1841.

Tükör. Budapest, 1933-1942. Illustrated literary and educational monthly. Begun under the editorship of József Révay, who patterned its content after Vasárnapi Újság (q.v.). Contained articles on literature and on a wide range of social questions and numerous pictures. Its contributors included some of the most important writers and scholars of the time, especially those affiliated with its publishing house, Franklin-Társulat.

Tűz. Pozsony (Bratislava), Czechoslovakia, then very soon Vienna, 1921-1923. Literary, fine arts, learned, and critical periodical founded by Hungarian writers who fled after the fall of the Revolutionary Government in 1919 and by young Hungarian writers in Czechoslovakia. Sought to acquaint readers with the literature of neighboring peoples through translations of their belles-lettres. Among its contributors: Lajos Barta, Tamás Falu, Milán Füst, Zoltán Franyó, Sándor Márai, and Ervin Sinkó. In Vienna appeared weekly under the editorship of Jenő Tamás Gömöri.

Új Ember. Budapest, 1945+. Catholic weekly. Actio Catholica publisher. Editors: Baldvin Pénzes and Béla Saád. János Pilinszky a member of its editorial staff since 1957.

Új Föld. Budapest, 1927. Literary and social periodical. Took its name from the movement seeking to advance the principles of modern art. Published the writings of Communist authors such as Sándor Barta, Imre Forbáth, György Lukács, and József Pápa. Only three numbers appeared. Edited by Zsigmond Remenyik, Aladár Tamás, and Sándor Bortnyik.

Új Hang. Moscow, January 1938-1941. Political and cultural periodical established in the Soviet Union by émigré Hungarian writers to support the anti-fascism of People's Front politics and to organize democratic solidarity. First Marxist analyses of Hungarian populist writers appeared in it. Among its contributors: Béla Balázs, Elek Bolgár, György Bölöni, Zoltán Fábry, Béla Fogarasi, Imre Forbáth, Andor Gábor, Sándor Gergely, Béla Lándor, Sarolta Lányi, György Lukács, József Madzsar, József Révai, Endre Sík, and Jenő Varga. Also published some of Attila József's poems. Continuation of Sarló és Kalapács (q.v.).

Új Hang. Budapest, February 1952-November 1956. Monthly literary and critical periodical. Organ of the young generation of writers and beginning authors, but the works of the older generation often appeared in its pages, including those of Gyula Illyés and Péter Veres. Published by the Federation of Working Youths and the Hungarian Writers' Federation. Editors: László Benjámin, Sándor Erdei, Ferenc Bajai, György Bodnár, and István Simon (1955-1956).

Újhold. See Appendix C.

Új Idők. Budapest, 1895-1949. Illustrated social, fine arts, and literary weekly. Widely read by middle class. Most popular writers of the time were among its contributors: István Szomaházy, Kálmán Csathó, Zsolt Harsányi, Miklós Surányi, Lajos Pósa, and János Komáromi. Also: Sándor Bródy, Géza Gárdonyi, Dezső Kosztolányi (1907-1916), Kálmán Mikszáth, Ferenc Molnár, Sándor Reményik, and János Vajda. Begun under the editorship of Ferenc Herczeg and edited by him until 1944. Published by Singer and Wolfner Press.

Új Írás. See Appendix C.

Új Magyarság. See Magyarság.

Új Magyar Szalon. See Magyar Szalon.

Új Magyar Szemle. See Appendix C.

Új Nemzedék. Budapest, December 25, 1913-1944. Political and critical weekly with a clerical and nationalistic outlook. Strong opponent of communism in Hungary. Presses were destroyed by mobs in October 1918, during the Revolution; István Milotay, its editor, forced to flee Budapest to escape imprisonment. Became the chauvinistic and anti-Semitic daily of Központi Sajtóvállalat in October 1919. Edited by Milotay until 1920. Other editors: Aladár Krüger, László Tápay-Szabó, József Cavallier, and then Dezső Saly. Dezső Kosztolányi was a staff member for a short time after 1919.

Az Újság. Budapest, December 16, 1903-1944. Political daily newspaper begun by the supporters of István Tisza to counteract the influence of the political opposition, especially that of the Independence party. Claimed to be independent politically. Among its contributors: Sándor Bródy, Kálmán Mikszáth (a principal contributor beginning in 1903), Ferenc Herczeg, Zsigmond Móricz, Tamás Kóbor, Andor Kozma, Géza Kende, and Frigyes Karinthy. Printed 50,000 copies daily in the 1910's. Liberal in outlook after World War I. Ödön Gajári served as managing editor for a long time. Móricz was staff member 1903-1909; Dezső Szomory from 1906 until his death in 1944. Paper banned in 1925 because of the way it handled the murders of Béla Somogyi and Béla Bacsó. Reappeared in July 1925 as Újság. Editors after that date: Béla Ágai and József Keszler and then Lajos Pánczél.

Újság. See Az Újság.

Új Szó. Budapest, February 2, 1945-April 4, 1948. Soviet Army's newspaper for Hungarians. Andor Gábor was a contributor. Appeared daily from September 1945. Edited by Béla Illés and Géza Kassai. Established after Magyar Újság, also a Soviet Army newspaper, ceased publication. This newspaper was published September 1944-January 29, 1945, first in Lvov, Poland, and then in Munkács, Ungvár, Nagymihály, and Debrecen, respectively.

Urambátyám. Budapest, 1886-1906. Appeared weekly under the editorship of Lajos Bartók and Kálmán Mikszáth. Humor magazine.

Uránia. Pest, 1794-1795. Literary periodical intended to create a larger reading audience for Hungarian literature, especially among women, and to make Pest the literary capital of Hungary. Planned to publish only original works as an encouragement to writers (first published József Kármán's Fanni hagyományai and A nemzet csinosodása)but also contained many translations, mainly of German literature. Had 289 subscribers. Edited and published by Kármán, Lajos Schedius, and Gáspár Pajor.

Uránia. See Appendix C.

Az Üstökös. Pest, August 21, 1858-1918. Illustrated humorous weekly begun by Mór Jókai as the continuation of Nagy Tükör, 1856-1858 (q.v.). Its satire was directed against Austrian absolutism and its officials, police, and supporters. During its first decade it exerted strong influence on its readers and strengthened Hungarian nationalism. Most important comic figure was Márton Kakas, whom Jókai had developed in Vasárnapi Újság (q.v.) and Nagy Tükör. Periodical remained popular for a long time after the Compromise of 1867, though its satire was softened considerably. Taken over from Jókai in 1882 by Endre Szabó, who reduced its humorous content considerably. Opposed the Hapsburgs during World War I.

Az Út. Kolozsvár, 1915-1918. Periodical serving the work of Protestant ministers. Edited by László Ravasz 1915-1916 and Lajos Imre and Sándor Makkai 1917-1918. Appeared monthly excepting July and August.

Az Út. Pozsony (Bratislava), Czechoslovakia, 1931-1936. Culturalpolitical and literary periodical with a Marxist outlook. Played an important role in unifying Hungarian literary efforts in Czechoslovakia and in opposing fascism. Edited by Zoltán Fábry.

Vajdasági Írás. Szabadka (Subotica), Yugoslavia, 1928-1929. Hungarian literary periodical in Yugoslavia which sought to advance progressive ideals. Informed readers about literary events in Hungary and introduced the writings of authors in Hungary, including those of Gyula Illyés, György Sárközi, and Lőrinc Szabó. Among its contributors: Oszkár Bárd, Sándor Haraszti, László Mécs, Pál Sándor, István Tamás, and Nándor Várkonyi. Edited by Kornél Szentelekly. Members of editorial board: Lajos Borsodi, Zoltán Csuka, Dezső Kohlmann, Ede Draskóczy, and Róbert Szántó. Superseded by Kalangya (q.v.).

Válasz. Budapest, 1934-1938. Literary, critical, and socio-political periodical which served as the organ of the populist writers. Began with a definite program to improve the lot of the peasants. Its viewpoint was similar to that of Nyugat (q.v.), but it also published the writings of such middle-class authors as László Cs. Szabó and Ferenc Fejtő. Among its contributors: Ferenc Erdei, Géza Féja, Gyula Illyés, János Kodolányi, Imre Kovács, László Németh, István Sinka, Lőrinc Szabó, Áron Tamási, and Péter Veres. First volume appeared in five numbers, thereafter ten times annually. Founded under the editorship of Pál Gulyás. Edited by Imre Németh and by György Sárközi 1935-1938.

Válasz. Budapest, October 1946-June 1949. Literary and socio-political periodical. Articles dealt with divisions of farm land, political life, issues concerned with political coalition and party problems, the communal movement, and problems of administration. Contributors were mainly writers and intellectuals in the National Peasant party. Contained belles-lettres, including dramas and novels of László Németh and poems of Gyula Illyés, Lőrinc Szabó, and Sándor Weöres. Edited by Gyula Illyés 1946-1948; then by Mrs. György Sárközi. Lőrinc Szabó was editor of poetry section, 1946-1949. Successor of the earlier Válasz (q.v.).

Valóság. Budapest, 1932. Literary and learned periodical for university students founded by Attila József with the support of the Communist party. Among contributors to its only number: Miklós Radnóti and Zsigmond Remenyik.

Valóság, 1958+. See Appendix C.

Vasárnapi Újság, 1827-1848. See Erdélyi Híradó.

Vasárnapi Újság. Budapest, March 5, 1854-1921. Literary and educational weekly begun by Landerer and Heckenast publishers at the urging of Mór Jókai, who was barred from the editorship by government officials because of his opposition to the Hapsburgs. First addressed itself to the general reader but eventually to the landed gentry and intellectuals. Reported on political activities but avoided supporting any particular political viewpoint. Some of the most important writers, poets, scholars, and illustrators were among its contributors. Remains a valuable source for studies and treatises. Lost popularity after the long editorship of Miklós Nagy. Linked itself with the progressive literature of the 20th century under the editorship of Aladár Schöpflin. Pál Gyulai was one of its co-founders. Editors: Albert Pákh, 1854-1867; Miklós Nagy, 1867-1905; Pál Hoitsy and Schöpflin, 1905-1921. Supplements: Politikai Újdonságok (1885-1909) and Háború Krónika (1877+; later Világ-Krónika).

Veszprém. Veszprém, 1875-1880. Independent political weekly newspaper. Continued by Veszprémi Független Hírlap in 1881, which was superseded by Veszprémvármegye on January 5, 1898. The latter became a regular newspaper on January 6, 1918 and ceased in 1919.

Veszprémi Független Hírlap. See Veszprém.

Veszprémi Népújság. Veszprém, 1945-1948.

Veszprémvármegye. See Veszprém.

Vigilia. See Appendix C.

Világ. Budapest, March 15, 1910-May 1, 1926. Political daily newspaper. One of the most important organs of radical liberalism in Hungary, mainly of its Freemasonry wing. Attacked the remains of feudalism in Hungarian society, clerics, and the existence of large estates. Its liberal ideas had a strong influence on public thought, and during its first eight years, it was a center of interest. Articles characterized by a thorough knowledge of the subject matter. Among its important contributors: Endre Ady, Lajos Barta, György Bölöni, Lajos Biró, Lajos Magyar, Oszkár Jászi, Dezső Kosztolányi (1910-1919), Ferenc Móra (1922-1926), Géza Supka, and Pál Szende. Communist articles began to appear in it after 1918. Among its most important editors: József Nyitray, Ödön Gerő, Lajos Purjesz, Géza Feleky, and Rezső Roóz. Entitled Fáklya April 20-May 24, 1919. Editorial board purchased the afternoon Magyar Hírlap (q.v.) in 1926 and made it into its morning paper.

Világ-Krónika. See Vasárnapi Újság, 1854-1921.

Világosság. Budapest, 1945-1952. Political daily of the Hungarian Social Democratic party from 1945 to 1948. When the Hungarian Workers' party merged with the Social Democratic party in 1948, it became the afternoon daily of the Hungarian Workers' party.

Világszabadság. Budapest, 1897-August 3, 1919. Political weekly founded by the Social Democratic party. One of the most important organs of the Hungarian agrarian-socialist movement. Appeared irregularly 1899-1905. Begun under the editorship of Sándor Csizmadia as the continuation of Földművelők Lapja. Zsigmond Móricz was a senior staff member during part of 1918-1919. Two supplements in German for a time : Der Feldarbeiter; then Weltfreiheit.

Virradat. Budapest, January 23, 1918-1922. Edited by Andor Szakács, then Sándor Lakatos. Appeared twice weekly.

Vörös Lobogó. Budapest, December 1918-June 1919. Political, critical, literary, and fine arts weekly. Contents aimed at those Hungarian workers who had not joined the Communist party or a trade union. Regular contributors: Zsófia Dénes, Iván Hevesi, János Mácza, Sándor Márai, Lajos Nagy, and Vilmos Rozványi; occasionally Zsigmond Móricz. Edited by Zoltán Franyó.

Vörös Újság. Budapest, December 7, 1918-August 3, 1919. First legal Communist political newspaper in Hungary. After the fall of the Revolutionary Government in 1919, it became the official afternoon paper of the Socialist-Communist Workers' party in Hungary. Most important contributors: László Rudas, József Révai, and Tibor Szamuely. Major purpose was to spread Leninist ideology, to analyze the domestic political situation, to inform its readers of the activities of the international workers' movement, to criticize the activities of the government and its political figures, and to organize the party. Strong enough to withstand attacks for a time. Appeared twice weekly at first and then weekly beginning in mid-January 1919. Seized Budapesti Hírlap (q.v.) in March 1919. József Lengyel was an assistant editor for a time.

Weltfreiheit. See Világszabadság.

Zord Idő. Marosvásárhely (Târgu Mureş), Rumania, September 1, 1919+. Protestant review. One of the first forums of Hungarian writers living in Rumania. Among its contributors: Lajos Áprily, Sándor Farcádi, Domokos Gyallay, Sándor Makkai, Sándor Reményik, László Ravasz, and Mihály Szabolcska. Appears weekly. Became the bulletin of Kemény Zsigmond Irodalmi Társaság on December 18, 1920. Editors: Kálmán Osváth, Mária Berde, Kálmán Dékáni, Károly Molter, and István Hajdu. Awarded prize to Irén Gulácsy for Förgeteg in 1925.

* Changed from "Jenő Roóz" to "Rezső Roóz" by László Drótos (MEK librarian) [03/29/2004]