Born January 21, 1823 in Alsósztregova; died October 5, 1864 in Alsósztregova. Poet, dramatist. Descendant of ancient aristocratic family. Completed first forms of study at home; remainder in Piarist gymnasium in Vác. Wrote and edited Litteratúrai Kevercs with younger brother for circulation in family when 15. Entered University of Pest in 1837. After completing course with philosophy faculty, he studied law, and became deputy clerk to sub-prefect of Nógrád County in 1843. Appointed clerk, later high commissioner. His great period of literary creativity was 1843-1845. Marriage to Erzsébet Fráter in 1845 was unhappy; divorced in 1854. Lived on estate in Csesztve. Depression over wife's behavior caused illness in 1848 and he did not recover until after Revolution. Imprisoned in summer 1852 for helping János Rákóczy, Kossuth's secretary, to escape; released in Pest in May 1853. Restricted to Pest on release; did not return to Csesztve till fall 1853. Began work on Az ember tragédiája in 1859. Parliamentary representative of Balassagyarmat District in March 1861. In 1861 he showed manuscript of Az ember tragédiája to János Arany (q.v.), who praised it and recommended some stylistic and metrical revisions. Became member of Kisfaludy-Társaság in 1862, shortly after publication of Az ember tragédiája; member of Academy in 1863. Died of heart trouble, from which he had long suffered. ¶ Wrote many lyric poems, articles, and dramas, but only truly lasting work is Az ember tragédiája, a dramatic poem, which became greatest achievement of Hungarian dramatic literature and placed him on level of West European philosophical dramatists. It represents effort on his part to explore the conflict between individualism and collectivism, the survival of individuality in face of reality, through visions of future given to Adam by Lucifer in which Eve is participating character. Resolution of conflict described as that of "tragic idealist." ¶ Az ember tragédiája is available in Bulgarian, Czech, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Rumanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovakian, Slovenian, Turkish, and Yiddish; and some of his poems have been translated in Bulgarian and German.

FIRST EDITIONS: Lant-virágok. [Versek] Pest: Füskúti Landerer Lajos, 1840. 72p. - Az ember tragédiája. Drámai költemény. Pest: Kisfaludy-Társaság, 1861. 218p. - Országgyűlési beszéde máj. 28. Pest, 1861. [From Szinnyei, VIII, 204] - Az ember tragédiája. Drámai költemény. 2. tetemesen javított kiadás. Pest: Emich Gusztáv, 1863. 218p. - See also nos. 2322 and 2323.


See also nos. 2329 (letters) and 2331.

2317. Összes művei. Kiadta Gyulai Pál. I-III. kötet. Budapest: Athenaeum, 1894-18952. [18801]. [C]

1. kötet: Lyrai költemények. 1894. 264p.

2. kötet: Drámai költemények: Férfi és nő, Mária királynő, Az ember tragédiája. 1895. 485p.

3. kötet: Drámai költemények és vegyesek. 1895. 486p.


2318. Az ember tragédiája. [Drámai költemény] Jegyzetekkel és magyarázatokkal kiadta Alexander Bernát. Budapest: Athenaeum, 19214 [19001]. 254p. [B] (1909, 1919) DLC MH MnU OCl FiHI

2319. Az ember tragédiája. Drámai költemény. A szerző által végsőűl megállapított szövegnek 2. kiadása. Az előszót Mészöly Gedeon írta. Budapest: Rózsavölgyi és Társa, 1922. 267p. [B]

2320. Lant-virágok. Pest 1840. Nyomtatta Füskúti Landerer Lajos. Az átnézés, a javítás s az utószó Wildner Ödön munkája, sajtó alá rendezte Sugár Jenő. Budapest: Korvin, 1922. 91p. [C]

2321. Az ember tragédiája. [Drámai költemény] Első kritikai szövegkiadás. Sajtó alá rendezte Tolnai Vilmos. 2. javított és bővített kiadás. Budapest: Magyar Tudományos Társaság, 1924 [19231]. 256p. [A] AsWU FiHI GyBH

2322. A civilizátor. Komédia Arisztofánesz modorában. A bevezetést írta és a kiadást átnézte Voinovich Géza. Budapest: Magyar Munkaközösség, 19381. 61p. [C] NNC GeLBM

2323. Összes levelei. Sajtó alá rendezte Staud Géza. I-II. kötet. Budapest: Madách Színház, 19421. [B]

1. kötet: [1828]-1853. június 9. 223p.

2. kötet: 1853. június 15-1864. augusztus 15. Bibliography, pp. 201-220. 224p.


2324. Összes művei. Sajtó alá rendezte, bevezette és a jegyzeteket írta Halász Gábor. I-II. kötet. Budapest: Révai, 1942. [A]

1. kötet: Színművek, első drámai kísérletek, drámatöredékek. 1064p.

2. kötet: Költemények, elbeszélések, tanulmányok, cikkek, beszédek, vegyes feljegyzések, első kísérletek, levelezés. 1223p.


2325. Az ember tragédiája. [Drámai költemény] Kardeván Károly jegyzeteivel és magyarázataival. 2. bővített kiadás. Budapest: Magyar Élet, 1948. 240p. [B] NNC FiHI GeLBM

2326. Az ember tragédiája. Sajtó alá rendezte és bevezette Waldapfel József. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1954. 268p. [C] DLC MH MnU NNC AsWN FiHU GeLBM

2327. Az ember tragédiája. [Drámai költemény] Sajtó alá rendezte Erdős Magda, az utószót írta Révai József. Budapest: Magyar Helikon, 1958. 222p. [C] IC AsWN GeLBM GeLU GyBDS

2328. Válogatott művei. Sajtó alá rendezte, bevezetéssel és jegyzetekkel ellátta Sőtér István, kiadta a Magyar Irodalomtörténeti Társaság. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1958. 647p. [B] DLC MnU GeCU GeLBM GyBDS GyBH


See nos. 2323 (vol. 2), 2330, 2332, 2342, 2343, 2345, 2348, 2350, and 2358.


2329. Palágyi Menyhért. Madách Imre élete és költészete. Budapest: Athenaeum, 1900. 441p.

A biography and related study of his poetry. Extensive attention to The tragedy of man. Appendixes: (1) School documents, (2) 37 letters written to his mother during his youth, (3) 10 letters by Erzsébet Fráter to the poet, (4) 10 of her letters to the imprisoned poet and to her mother-in-law, and (5) 21 miscellaneous letters and documents. Illustrations. GeLBM

2330. Voinovich Géza. Madách Imre és Az ember tragédiája. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 19222. 596p. [19141]

Major attention to his works, especially The tragedy of man. Bibliography, pp. 569-596. CoU ICN MH MnU NN NNC AsWN AsWU FiHI GeLBM GyBH

2331. Balogh Károly. Madách, az ember és a költő. Budapest: Vajna György és Társa, 1934. 366p.

Pt. I: a biography, emphasizing the connection between his life and writings; Pt. II: connections between his lyric poems, and other writings and The tragedy of man, two essays on his aesthetics, essays on the "Eternal Eve" and the "Eternal Adam," an anthology of his poems, and selections of his thoughts and aphorisms. Bibliographical footnotes. Illustrations. MH MnU NNC AsWN FiHI GeLBM GyBH

2332. Barta János. Madách Imre. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 1942. 187p.

Considerable attention to his character and the literary qualities of his works. Appendix: Chronology of the growth of his reputation through the presentations of The tragedy of man in Hungary and abroad and the reception given to them. Bibliographical notes, pp. 184-187. MnU NN NNC OCl AsWN

2333. Krizsán László. Dokumentumok Madách Imre élettörténetéhez. Balassagyarmat: Bács-Kiskunm. Nyomda, 1964. 125p.

A collection of documents, mainly from the Nógrád County Archives, covering the events of his life up to 1861. Includes records dealing with the dispute over his estate. Helpful to understanding the problems affecting him at the time of his writing Az ember tragédiája. GeLBM


See also nos. 292, 3009, 3014, 4618, and 4624.

2334. Szász Károly. "Az ember tragédiájá"-ról. Győr: Gross Testvérek, 1889. 84p. [Appeared as "Az ember tragédiája" in Szépirodalmi Figyelő, I (1862), 228-231, 244-246, 260-262, 275-277, 293-295, 308-310, 324-326, 339-342]

Thesis: the tragedy's thought is worthy of the minds of great poets in any country, but Madách frequently attempts more than is within the scope of his poetic imagination. Closes with the question of the possible influence of Goethe's Faust.

2335. Morvay Győző. Magyarázó tanulmány "Az ember tragédiájá"-hoz. Nagybánya: Molnár Mihály, 1897. 527p.

Provides background for and a history of The tragedy of man (antecedents, sources, publication, editions, and other material); examines the work in detail as to substance and form. Bibliographical footnotes.

2336. Gedő Simon. Madách Imre mint lyrikus. Budapest: Márkus Samu, 1910. 32p.

His lyric poems studied as an expansion of his intellectual views: his outlook, the nature of his imagination, the way he looks at the world and nature, his manner of reproducing impressions of reality, his style, and the influences upon him. MiU OO

2337. Haraszti Gyula. Madách Imre. Budapest: Athenaeum, 1912. 51p.

In three parts: (1) his world view, (2) his concept of woman, and (3) his literary artistry. GyBH

2338. Pais Dezső. "Madách és Lamartine," Egyetemes Philologiai Közlöny, XLIII (1919), 107-120.

Advances the view that the concepts in Lamartine's La chute d'un ange and Jocelyn very possibly influenced The tragedy of man not only in itsparts but to a certain extent in the genesis of the entire dramatic poem. [CU] IU MnU OClW OCU FiHU GyBH

2339. Alexander Bernát. Madách Imre. Budapest: Ethika, 1923. 31p.

Purpose: to show his roots in the intellectual currents of the 19th century as revealed by The tragedy of man. Attention to the ideas of Hegel and Schopenhauer and his relation with them. GyBH

2340. "Madách Imre-szám," Nyugat, XVI (February 1, 1923), 113-178.

An issue containing several studies of The tragedy of man. MH MnU NNC FiHU GeLBM GyBH

2341. Négyesy László. "Egyetemesség, magyarság és egyéniség Az ember tragédiájában," Budapesti Szemle, CXCV, no. 561 (1924), 1-19.

Concerned with the extent to which The tragedy of man, this "poem of the world," has Hungarian qualities and with the ways in which the drama, having a universal subject and viewpoint, can be individualistic and subjective in character. Greater attention to the first question. CtY DLC AsWN FiHI GeLBM GyBH

2342. Pröhle Vilma. "Az ember tragédiája" és a Faust. [Doktori értekezés] Budapest: Kertész József, 1929. 114p.

After discussing the genesis and ideas of each work separately, explores the parallels between the two texts. Finds resemblances to be external. Bibliography, p. 2. AsWU GeLBM

2343. Juhász László. Un disciple du romantisme française. Madách et La Tragedie de L'Homme. Szeged: L'Institut Français de L'Université de Szeged, 1930. 60p.

A study of the influence of French romanticism on Madách and The tragedy of man. Finds Madách not an imitator but a disciple of French romanticism. Explores, among others: Voltaire, Lamartine, Hugo. List of publications on Madách in France, p. [61]. Bibliography, pp. 59-60. NN GyBH

2344. Barta János. Az ismeretlen Madách. Tanulmány. Budapest: Lőrincz Ernő, 1931. 83p.

Develops the thesis that his personality cannot be understood through his philosophical thought or through his poetic creativity, on the grounds that he was born to deal with the life impulse and not with the formal requirements of thought and the artistic demands of poetry. MnU GeLBM GyBH

2345. Németh Antal. "Az ember tragédiája" a színpadon. Budapest: Budapest Székesfőváros, 1933. 159p.

An account of the stage presentations of The tragedy of man in Hungary and abroad during the fifty years since its première. Bibliographies at opening of each chapter. Illustrations of stage sets. Summaries: German, pp. 139-143; English, pp. 145-152; French, pp. 153-159. DLC MH NN NNC AsWN GyBH GeLBM

2346. Riedl Frigyes. Madách. Budapest: Királyi Magyar Egyetemi Nyomda, 1933. 128p.

Details of his Hungarian predecessors in the drama and of his life, and attention to his other works, but mainly an examination of the form and substance of The tragedy of man. MoSW AsWN GeLBM

2347. Kardeván Károly. Az ember tragédiájá-nak magyarázata. Budapest: Királyi Magyar Egyetemi Nyomda, 1935. 95p.

A scene-by-scene commentary on the drama. FiHI GyBH

2348. Kamarás Béla. Madách Imre ifjúkori drámái és novellái. Doktori értekezés. Pécs: Dunántúl Pécsi Egyetemi Könyvkiadó és Nyomda, 1941. 81p.

After characterizing his literary development during his youth, examines his dramas and short stories of this period, mainly the former, as to their subject matter, form, and merit. Bibliography, p. 82.

2349. Lengyel Lajos. "A filozófia alapproblémája 'Az ember tragédiájá'-ban," Athenaeum, XXVIII (1942), 142-165.

Finds the basic problem in The tragedy of man to be the relation of man to the real and the immanent, and its resolution to be found not in an objective but in a subjective sphere by establishing, through the use of myth and poetry, the concept of a universal spirit latent within the soul of man with which he must create a oneness intuitively. Draws attention to Hegel's view and the way in which Madách's differs from it. NN NNC [GeLBM] GyBH

2350. Kiss Ilona. Madách és az Éva probléma. Budapest: A Szerző, 1943. 60p.

Purpose: through a Jungian examination of Madách's personal life, to show the degree to which his true attitude toward woman follows from the structure of his personality and to emphasize the fundamental significance of the components of his inner life. Closes with a discussion of The tragedy of man in connection with the problem. A summary of previous scholarly studies about Madách and their views of his concept of woman, Chapter I. Bibliography, pp. 59-60. GyBH

2351. Waldapfel József. "Madách igazáért," Irodalmi tanulmányok. Válogatott cikkek, előadások, glosszák. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1957; 555p. Pp. 440-466. [Appeared in Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelv- és Irodalomtudományi Osztályának Közleményei, II (1952), 240-261]

Concerned with several points about The tragedy of man: (1) the reason for the scene in Prague with Kepler, (2) Lucifer's character, (3) the biblical settings of the first and last scenes, and (4) the quality of the poetry. Maintains that its poetry, not its philosophy, is its most important element. Marxist-Leninist point of view. DLC MH NN NNC AsWN GyBDS GyBH GyGNSU

2352. Sőtér István. "Madách Imre," Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelv- és Irodalomtudományi Osztályának Közleményei, VIII (1956), 129-180.

The thought in his poetry and The tragedy of man with respect to its connections with other figures and political and intellectual currents of his times primarily for the purpose of discussing the problem of pessimism presented by the mystery play. Maintains that one must not see only "the pessimism, the disillusionment, and the despair" in the thought of the Tragedy, but also the "pathos" attending them, and recognize that his belief in national independence drew him from pessimism to the tenets of "strive" and "trust." DLC MnU NNC GeLBM GyBDS GyBH GyGNSU

2353. Horváth Károly. "Madách Imre," Irodalomtörténeti Közlemények, LXII (1958), 1-73. [Also a reprint]

His early writings (dramas, short stories, lyrics), with respect to their themes and literary character and the political, social, intellectual and literary forces affecting them, their preparation for The tragedy of man, and a discussion of that drama as to the philosophical and learned conceptions and the dialectical philosophy of history that influenced it. Bibliographical footnotes. Summary in French, p. 73. DLC MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GyBH

2354. Waldapfel József. Gorkij és Madách. Budapest: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Irodalomtörténeti Intézete, 1958. 51p.

Seeks to establish the great value and importance which Gorky gave to The tragedy of man. Information on Russian translations of the work. Summary in French, pp. 49-50. Illustrations. DLC MH MnU NNC AsWN AsWU GyBDS GyGNSU

2355. Révai József. "Madách Imre: Az ember tragédiája," Válogatott irodalmi tanulmányok. A jegyzeteket készítették Bóka László, Pándi Pál, Sőtér István, Szabolcsi Miklós és Szauder József. Budapest: Kossuth, 1960; 447p. Pp. 93-124. [Appeared in Társadalmi Szemle, XIII (September, 1958), 13-35]

Examines three questions from a socialistic point of view: (1) Is the work basically pessimistic? (2) What is his view of the role of the people and the masses? and (3) Does the scene of the Phalanstery compromise socialism? DLC MnU NN GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

2356. Baranyi Imre. A fiatal Madách gondolatvilága. (Madách és az Athenaeum) Budapest: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Irodalomtörténeti Intézete, 1963. 149p.

Purpose: to show the artistic, intellectual, political, and literary influences of the 1840's on the young poet as a way of examining his development and the sources of his political and social outlook and his learning and of revealing the genesis of his thought. Much attention to his reading of the periodical Athenaeum. Bibliographical footnotes. MH NNC AsWN GyBH GyGNSU

2357. Barta János. "Történetfilozófiai kérdések Az ember tragédiájában," Irodalomtörténeti Közlemények, LXIX (1965), 1-10.

A three-point analysis of the dramatic poem: (1) the forces affecting history, (2) the forces beyond individuality and the condition of man, and (3) historical development as a consequence of the open or closed state of history. Maintains that Madách's philosophy of history views man not merely as an instrument of higher historical forces but as the creator and builder of his own history. DLC MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GyBH

2358. Sőtér István. Álom a történelemről. Madách Imre és Az ember tragédiája. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1965. 101p.

Shows how the special circumstances of his life are reflected in the creation of Az ember tragédiája, how he reaches this philosophical drama in his artistic development, and what place the work and the questions arising in it hold in the historical conditions of the period in Hungary and among the literary and philosophical tendencies of his contemporaries. Bibliography, pp. 99-101: biographies and comprehensive studies, literary treatments, short studies, and the course of the play on the stage. NNC FiHI GeLBM GyBH GyGNSU


Born May 13, 1890 in Nagyenyed; died July 19, 1951 in Budapest. Novelist, religious and educational writer, critic. Completed schooling in Enyed, Kolozsvár, and Sepsiszentgyörgy. Studied theology with Kolozsvár Reformed Church Theological Faculty and at the same time pursued studies at University of Kolozsvár. Obtained doctorate in philosophy in 1912. Served as minister in Vajdakamarás 1915-1917. Professor of theology in Sárospatak 1917-1918 and in Kolozsvár 1918-1926. Edited Az Út 1915-1921 and Református Szemle (Kolozsvár) 1921-1925 and again beginning in 1940. Chosen Bishop in 1926 and served Transylvania District until 1936. Became professor at Debreceni Református Kollégium in 1936 and then professor at Theological Academy. Member of Erdélyi Múzeum-Egylet, Erdélyi Irodalmi Társaság, and Kemény Zsigmond Irodalmi Társaság, in Marosvásárhely. ¶ In addition to a large number of theological, philosophical, and educational studies and sermons, he contributed novels to the period. Represented conservative tradition but was quite modern in outlook. Sought to suggest solutions to contemporary problems in historical novels dealing with past. Defense of Endre Ady (q.v.) on religious and patriotic grounds in Magyar fa sorsa created great controversy. ¶ Some of his short stories have been translated into French, German, and Turkish.


See also no. 67 for annotated work.

2359. A szabadság vallása. Kolozsvár, 19101. [From Ványi, p. 549]

2360. Jézus. Bousset W. művének fordítása. Kolozsvár, 19111. [From Ványi, p. 549]

2361. Bevezetés a személyiség pedagogikájába. Kolozsvár, 19121. [From Ványi, p. 549]

2362. Számadás. Versek. Kolozsvár, 19121. [From Pintér, VIII, 1160]

2363. Hittem, azért szóltam. Kolozsvár, 19131. [From Ványi, p. 549]

2364. A nagy személyiségek nevelői jelentősége. Kolozsvár, 19131. [From Ványi, p. 549]

2365. Vallásos világkép és életfolytatás. Kolozsvár, 19131. [From Ványi, p. 549]

2366. A hit problémája. Vallásfilozófiai tanulmány. I. rész: A hit világmagyarázó ereje. Budapest: Kókai Lajos, 19161. 93p.

2367. A szekták keletkezésének okai. Kolozsvár, 19171. [From Ványi, p. 549]

2368. A halál miszteriuma. Budapest, 19181. [From Ványi, p. 549]

2369. Kapu előtt. Regény. Kolozsvár, 19211. [From Pintér, VIII, 1160]

2370. A lélek élete és javai. Philosophia propaedeütika. Cluj-Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Református Egyházkerület, 19221. 64p.

2371. "Írd meg, amiket láttál" Beszédek, elmélkedések, előadások. Cluj-Kolozsvár: Minerva, 19231. 185p.

2372. "Kegyelemből, hit által" A református keresztyén vallás alapvonalai, tartalma és védelme. [Tanulmány] Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Református Egyházkerület, 19231. 72p. [19293]

2373. A vallás az emberiség életében. (A vallás történeti képe) Turda-Torda: Füssy József, 19231 [1925?]. 172p. GyBH

2374. A vallás lényege és értéke. Vallásfilozófiai előadások. Turda-Torda: Füssy József, 19231. 151p. NNC GyBH

2375. Élet fejedelme. Elbeszélések. Cluj-Kolozsvár: Az Út, 19241. 131p. [19342] DLC NN OCl

2376. Az Eszter padja. [Elbeszélés] CIuj-KoIozsvár: Az Út, 19241. 17p.

2377. Az erdélyi református egyházi irodalom 1850-től napjainkig. [Tanulmány] Cluj-KoIozsvár: Az Út, 19251 [1923 ?]. 60p. NNC GeLBM GyBH

2378. Megszólalnak a kövek. Elbeszélések. [Öntudat király, Hit királyné, Képzelt királyfi; hősei: Bethlen Gábor, Apácai Csere János, Apafi Mihály] Cluj-Kolozsvár: Minerva, 19251. 125p. [1926] GyBH GyGGaU

2379. Öntudatos kálvinizmus. A református magyar intelligencia számára. [Tanulmány] Budapest: Soli Deo Gloria, 19251. 67p.

2380. Ördögszekér. Erdélyi regény. I-II. kötet. Cluj-Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Szépmíves Céh, 19251. [19304, 47th thousand 1943] NNC OCl FiHU GeLBM

2381. "Zörgessetek és megnyittatik néktek" Tanulmányok, előadások, beszédek, elmélkedések, stb. Cluj-Kolozsvár: Az Út, 19251. 332p.

2382. Aratás. Előadások, Ecclesia militans, Beszédek, Feltámadunk, Művészet és irodalom. Lucinec-Losonc: Kultúra, 19261. 236p.

2383. Gyöngyvirág. Énekes mesejáték. Cluj-Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Református Egyházkerület, 19271. 49p.

2384. Magyar fa sorsa. A vádlott Ady költészete. Budapest: Soli Deo Gloria, 19271. 142p.

2385. Püspöki programmbeszéde és beköszöntő prédikációja. Cluj-Kolozsvár: Minerva, 19271. 15p.

2386. Ágnes. Regény. Cluj-Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Szépmíves Céh, 19281 [1929?]. 141p. GyBH

2387. Az elátkozott óriások. Nyolc előadás. Cluj-Kolozsvár: Minerva, 19281. 95p.

2388. Egyedül. Bethlen Gábor lelki arca. [Tanulmányok] Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Szépmíves Céh, 19291. 117p. [18th-19th thousand after 1940] MH NN NNC OCl OClW FiHI GeLBM GyBH

2389. A mi útunk. Elmélkedések, beszédek, előadások, temetési beszédek, cikkek. Cluj-Kolozsvár: Ifjú Erdély, 19291. 300p. GeLBM GyBH

2390. Magunk reviziója. [Előadások] Kolozsvár: ErdéIyi Szépmíves Céh, 19311. 98p. NNC GyBH

2391. Erdélyi szemmel. [Beszédek, esszék, előadások] Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Szépmíves Céh, 19321 [1933?]. 179p. NNC AsWN GeLBM GyBH

2392. "Nem békességet" Evangélium és humanum, Az evangélium szociális üzenete, Evangélium és egyház. [Tanulmányok] Budapest: Soli Deo Gloria, 19321. 62p.

2393. Harc a szobor ellen. Négy tanulmány. Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Szépmíves Céh, 19331 [1934?]. 119p. NN NNC GeLBM GyBH

2394. Evangelium az egyházban. Három előadás. Sepsiszentgyörgy: Erdélyi Református Férfiszövetség Sepsiszentgyörgyi Tagozata, 19341. 52p.

2395. Sárga vihar. [Regény] I-II. kötet. Budapest: Genius, 19341. [19362, 32nd thousand 1944] DLC IC NNC OCl FiHU GeLBM GyBH

2396. Táltoskirály. [Regény] Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Szépmíves Céh, 19341. 471p. [19364, 30th thousand 1942] DLC IC NNC OCl FiHU GeLBM GyBH

2397. Az élet kérdezett. Tanulmányok. I-II. kötet. Budapest: Révai, 1935.1 NN OCl AsWN GeLBM GyBH

2398. Küzdelem az örökségért. Ünnepi beszéd. Budapest: Országos Bethlen Gábor Szövetség, 19351. 22p.

2399. Esztétikum és religiózum. [Tanulmány] Budapest: Egyetemi Nyomda, 19361. 15p.

2400. Holttenger. [Regény] Budapest: Révai, 19361. 405p. [19362, 19413] IC NN GeLBM GyBH

2401. Magyar nevelés, magyar műveltség. [Művelődéspolitikai tanulmány] Budapest: Révai, 19371. 252p. [19392, 19433] NNC OCl AsWN GeLBM

2402. Magyarok csillaga. [Regény] Budapest: Révai, 19371. 344p. [19412, 19433] NNC OCl GeLBM

2403. Az egyház missziói munkája. (Az egyház történeti képe, élete, tevékenységei, A pásztori misszió, A gyülekezeti misszió, A külmisszió) [Tanulmány] Budapest: Révai, 19381. 382p.

2404. Nemzet és kisebbség. [Tanulmány] Budapest: Királyi Magyar Egyetemi Nyomda, 19391. 19p.

2405. Tudománnyal és fegyverrel. (Arte et marte) A nemzetnevelés terve. Budapest: Révai, 19391. 192p. AsWN GeLBM GyBH

2406. A magyar nő küldetése. [Tanulmány] Pápa: Főiskolai Könyvkiadó, 19401. 15p.

2407. A magyar reformátusság egyházi élete. [Tanulmány] Debrecen: Városi Nyomda, 19401. 84p.

2408. Mi Ernyeiek. Regény. I-II. kötet. Budapest: Révai, 19401. [12th thousand 1944] OCl AsWN GeLBM

2409. Örök Erdély. [Tanulmány] Budapest: Stádium, 19401. 32p. AsWN

2410. Ravasz László igehírdetői útja. [Tanulmány] Budapest: Franklin Nyomda, 1941. 58p. [A reprint]

2411. Szép kísértet. Regény. Budapest: Révai, 19421. 436p. [19443] AsWN GyGGaU

2412. A tiszántúli református egyházkerület jövője. [Tanulmány] Révész Imre előszavával. Debrecen: Debrecen Város és Tiszántúli Református Egyházkerület, 19421. 39p.

2413. A fejedelem rózsája. Történelmi elbeszélések. Budapest: Stádium 19431. 54p. AsWN

2414. Szabad vagy. Regény. I-II. kötet. Budapest : Erdélyi Szépmíves Céh, 19431. NNC GyBH

2415. Döntő napok. Evangélizációs hétre. [Egyházi beszédek] Debrecen: Tiszántúli Református Egyházkerület, 19461. 45p.

2416. Itt és most. [Egyházi beszédek] Budapest: Országos Református Nőszövetség, 19461. 143p.

2417. Egymás terhét hordozzátok. [Egyházi beszéd] Budapest: Református Egyetemes Konvent, 19491. 30p.

2418. Élő gyülekezet. Tanulmányok, előadások a gyülekezeti misszió közösségi szolgálatának köréből. Budapest: Református Egyetemes Konvent, 19491. 148p. DLC


See no. 2419.


See also nos. 66 and 841.

2419. Walter Gyula. "Makkai Sándor, az író," Pásztortűz, XI ( 1925), 402-404.

An attempt to locate the psychological threads leading from "Makkai the man" to "Makkai the writer." Discussion by works. Bibliography of his writings, p. 404. GyBH

2420. Oláh Gábor. "Makkai Sándor," Debreceni Szemle, II (1928), 133-145.

Sections dealing with characterizations of his lyric poetry, his short stories, the shortcomings of Ördögszekér, his success at understanding and delineating the attributes of Endre Ady's poetry. Attention to subject matter and form. MH MnU GyBH

2421. Szerb Antal. "A regény és a történelem. A Táltoskirály alkalmából " Erdélyi Helikon, VII (1934), 413-416.

Comments on the inferiority of the Hungarian historical novel as an escape from the present to an imaginary past. Maintains that Makkai's new novel is characterized by a pure, clear, and cold style and a historical feeling and understanding, that it follows in the footsteps of Zsigmond Kemény's novels, that Makkai uses the language of his own times and directs the problems of today to their historical roots, that in his intellectualization of the historical novels he links himself with the biblical trilogy of Thomas Mann, that he is a pioneer of the new genre which alongside the aesthetic experience leads above all to a higher understanding of historical truth. GyBH

2422. Szenczei László. "Makkai Sándor történelmi regényei," Korunk, I (1939), 459-464.

A discussion of his historical novels as being his favorite form of expression, as being concerned not with history but with the intellectual and physical storms of puberty, and as searching for instincts in ancient manifestations instead of the exoticism and primitive surroundings of D. H. Lawrence. States that his success is dependent on the selection of the period (as in Ördögszekér and not in Táltoskirály and Sárga vihar),that he describes the lives and actions of his ancient heroes in modern style, probably because of his own situation in Transylvania, that he seeks answers to contemporary problems in history but does not find them, and that his ability predestines him to the writing of lasting works but that he has not created such works as yet.

2423. Jancsó Elemér. "Makkai Sándor, az író," Protestáns Szemle, XLIX (1940), 301-303.

An evaluation of his literary productivity: his place in relation to other Transylvanian writers of his times, his transcending regionalism, the characteristics of his various writings, the sources of his style, etc. NNC GeLBM GyBH


Born April 11, 1900, in Kassa. Novelist, short-story writer, journalist. Family name: Grosschmid. Father a lawyer; family of Saxon origin. Completed schooling in Kassa, Eperjes, and Budapest. Articles under pseudonyms began to appear while in gymnasium. Studied law at University of Budapest. As student participated in revolutionary events of 1918-1919. Left Hungary in 1919 and lived in Germany until 1923, studying journalism at University of Leipzig and philosophy at Universities of Frankfurt am Main and Berlin. Continued study of philosophy in Paris 1923-1928. Became staff member of Tűz, in Vienna. On return to Budapest followed journalistic career, serving on staffs of Újság and Pesti Hírlap. During 1930's contributed to many West European periodicals. Became best-selling author. Viewed problems of 1930's humanistically and opposed fascism. Kaland presented by Nemzeti Kamara Színház in 1940 for nearly a year, and A kassai polgárok premièred by National Theater in 1942. After 1945 he was staff member of Magyar Nemzet. Emigrated to Switzerland in 1948 and moved to Italy in 1950. Settled in United States in 1952 and became citizen in 1957. ¶ Most important and influential representative of middle-class literature in period between two World Wars, especially in his novels. Not a reformer but a portrayer of human problems and struggles through psychological examination. Probes innermost parts of human nature. Lyrical and intuitive delineation of characters results in relatively plotless novels. Style symbolic, not realistic. Often praised for ability to rise above narrow nationalism and provincialism. ¶ Zendülők has been translated into French; Csutora into Czech and German; Idegen emberek into Czech, Dutch, and German; A szegények iskolája, A gyertyák csonkig égnek, Kassai polgárok, A sirály, and Kaland into German; Válás Budán into Czech, German, and Spanish; Féltékenyek into Dutch, German, and Turkish; Vendégjáték Bolzanóban into Czech, Dutch, German, Italian, Spanish, and Swedish; and some of his short stories into Bulgarian, Czech, French, German, Italian, Polish, Russian, Slovakian, and Turkish.


See also no. 3946 for material in edition.

2424. Emlékkönyv. [Versek] Kassa: Kassai Nyomda, 19181. 39p.

2425. Emberi hang. [Versek] Kassa: Globus, 19211. 164p.

2426. Panaszkönyv. [Karcolatok] Košice: Globus, 19221. 80p.

2427. A mészáros. [Regény] Wien: Pegazus, 19241. 59p.

2428. Istenek nyomában. [Útirajz] Budapest: Pantheon,19271. 240p. [19372] NNC OCl GeLBM

2429. Bébi vagy az első szerelem. Regény. [Egy öregedő tanár naplója] Budapest: Pantheon, 19281. 250p. [19432] IC NN NNC AsWN GeLBM GeLU GyBH

2430. Csutora. Kutya-regény. Budapest: Kazinczy, 1930?1. 246p. [19322, 1946] IC OCl GeLBM GeLU

2431. Mint a hal, vagy a néger. [Versek; gyűjtemény] Budapest: Pantheon, 1930. 58p. NNC GeLBM

2432. A zendülők. [Regény] Budapest: Pantheon, 19301. 348p. IC NN NNC OCl GeLBM

2433. Idegen emberek. Regény. I-II. kötet. Budapest: Pantheon, 19311. [1935, 1942, 1945, 19465] DLC NN NNC OCl GeLBM GeLU

2434. Műsoron kívül. [Cikkek, elbeszélések] Budapest: Athenaeum, 19311. 263p. [1945] GeLBM

2435. A szegények iskolája. [Reflexiók] Budapest: Pantheon, 19331. 255p. NNC OCl AsWN GyBH

2436. Bolhapiac. [Rajzok] Budapest: Pantheon, 19341. 271p. OCl GeLBM GeLU GyBH

2437. A sziget. [Regény] Budapest: Pantheon, 19341. 253p. IC NN NNC OCl GeLBM GyGNSU

2438. Egy polgár vallomásai. [Önéletrajz] I-II. kötet. Budapest: Pantheon, 1934-19351. [19403, 19464] IC MH [NN] NNC AsWN FiHI GeCU GeLBM

2439. Naptárcsere. [Novella] Budapest: Hungária, 19351. 25p. InU MH NN NNC GeLBM

2440. Válás Budán. Regény. Budapest: Révai, 19351. 229p. DLC IC NN NNC GeLBM GyGNSU

2441. Kabala. [Cikkek, elbeszélések] Budapest: Révai, 19361. 285p. CoU MH NNC AsWN GeLBM

2442. Napnyugati őrjárat. Regény. Budapest: Révai, 19361. 226p. NN NNC GeLBM GyBH

2443. A féltékenyek. [Regény] I-II. kötet. Budapest: Révai, 19371. DLC IC NNC OCl AsWN FiHU GeLBM GeLU GyBH GyGGaU

2444. Négy évszak. [Gondolatok] Budapest: Révai, 19381. 338p. [1943] IC MiD NNC GeLBM GeLU GyBH GyGNSU

2445. Eszter hagyatéka. [Déli szél]Két kisregény. Budapest: Révai, 19391, 223p. [1940] IC NNC OCl GeLBM GyBH GyGNSU

2446. Válogatott munkái. [I-XI.]kötet. Budapest: Révai, 1939-1943.

[Volumes not numbered; arranged chronologically]

1. Csutora. Regény. 19393. 211p.

2-3. A féltékenyek. Regény. 1-2. kötet. 19392.

4. Istenek nyomában. Útirajz. 19393. 276p.

5. Kabala. [Novellák] 19392. 285p.

6. Napnyugati őrjárat. Útirajz. 19392. 226p.

7. Négy évszak. Írások. 19392. 338p.

8. A szegények iskolája. 19392. 210p.

9. Válás Budán. [Regény] 19392. 229p.

10. Eszter hagyatéka. Déli szél. Két kisregény. 19434. 222p.

11. Vasárnapi krónika. [Cikk-gyűjtemény] 19431. 385p.


2447. Kaland. Színmű. Budapest: Singer és Wolfner, 19401. 122p. [19412] DLC MnU NNC GeLBM

2448. Szindbád hazamegy. [Regény Krúdy Gyuláról] Budapest: Révai, 19401. 216p. [1943] InU NNC OCl GeLBM

2449. Vendégjáték Bolzanóban. [Regény] Budapest: Révai, 19401. 336p. [1941, 1943] DLC MH NN NNC OCl AsWN FiHI FiHU GeLBM GeLU

2450. Az igazi. [Regény] Budapest: Révai, 19411. 373p. [1942, 1945] NN NNC AsWN FiHI GeLBM GyBH

2451. Jó ember és rossz ember. [Esszé] Gyoma: Kner Izidor, 19411. 11p.

2452. Kassai őrjárat. [Tanulmány] Budapest: Révai, 19411. 203p. [1961] DLC NN AsWN GiHU GeLBM

2453. Mágia. [Novellák] Budapest: Révai, 19411. 430p. [19463] GeLBM GyBH

2454. Ég és föld. [Aforizmák] Budapest: Révai, 19421. 290p. NN NNCAsWN GeLBM GyBH

2455. A gyertyák csonkig égnek. [Regény] Budapest: Révai, 19421. 210p. [1946] NNC FiHU GeLBM

2456. A kassai polgárok. Dráma három felvonásban, hat képben. Budapest: Révai, 19421. 250p. DLC NNC OCl AsWN GeLBM GyBH

2457. Röpirat a nemzetnevelés ügyében. Budapest: Révai, 19421. 142p. MH-L GyBH

2458. Füves könyv. [Prózai epigrammák] Budapest: Révai, 19431. 214p.GeLBM

2459. Sirály. [Regény] Budapest: Révai, 19431. 222p. NN NNC OCI GeLBM

2460. Bolhapiac. Regény. [A Bolhapiac és a Műsoron kívül című művek válogatott rajzai és elbeszélései] Budapest: Révai, 19442. 318p. NNC PPGyBH

2461. Napló (1943-1944). Budapest: Révai, 19451. 505p. MiD MnU NNC GeLBM

2462. Varázs. Színjáték három felvonásban. Budapest: Révai, 19451. 251p. MiD NN NNC GeLBM

2463. Verses könyv. Budapest: Révai, 19451. 83p. DLCMnU NN GeLBM

2464. Ihlet és nemzedék. [Tanulmányok] Budapest: Révai, 19461. 343p. IC MnU NN NNC OCl GeLBM

2465. Nővér. [Regény] Budapest: Révai, 19461. 301p. DLC IC NN NNC OCl PP GeLBM

2466. Európa elrablása. [Útirajzok] Budapest: Révai, 19471. 152p. DLC NN GeLBM GyGGaU

2467. Medvetánc. [Elbeszélések] Budapest: Révai, 19471. 160p. MiD NN GeLBM

2468. Sértődöttek. [Regény] I-III. kötet. Budapest: Révai, 1947-19481.

1.kötet: A hang. 19471. 296p.

2. kötet: Jelvény és jelentés. 19481. 279p.

3. kötet: Művészet és szerelem. 19481. 268p.


2469. Béke Ithakában. [Regény három énekben] London: Lincolns-Prager, 19521. 256p. DLC MH NN NNC OCl AsWN FiHU GeCU GeLBM GeOB GyBDS GyGGaU GyGNSU

2470. Vasárnapi krónika. New York, 1955-19561. [From Magyar irodalmi lexikon, II, 185]

2471. Newyorki naplójegyzetek. New York, 19571. [From Magyar irodalmi lexikon, II, 185]

2472. Nyugati levelek. New York, 19571.[From Magyar irodalmi lexikon, II, 185]

2473. Újévi beszámoló. New York, 19571. [From Magyar irodalmi lexikon, II, 185]

2474. Vasárnapi levél. New York, 19571. [From Magyar irodalmi lexikon , II, 185]

2475. Das Wunder des San Gennaro. [Regény] Baden-Baden, 19571. [From Magyar irodalmi lexikon, II, 185]

2476. Ulysses hazatér. [New York], n.d.1. [From Magyar irodalmi lexikon , II, 185]

2477. Napló 1945-1957. Washington, D.C.:Occidental, ca.19581. 235p. DLC MH NN NNC OCl FiHU

2478. Egy úr Velencéből. Verses játék. [A verse play of Vendégjáték Bolzanóban]Washington, D.C.:Occidental, 19601. 125p. DLC ICU MH NN NNC GeLU

2479. San Gennaro vére. Regény. New York: Az Író, 19651. 186p. NNC


See also no. 4624.

2480. Karinthy Frigyes. "Márai Sándorról 'A sziget' alkalmából," Nyugat, XXVII (February 1, 1934), 169-172.

Comments on his eagerness to write, on his already outstanding form of expression, on the "anarchy" of his style with A sziget as an illustration of this characteristic, on his use of quotation marks, and on his standing on the "uncertain but more human crossroad of agnosticism" between Dostoevsky and de Sade. MnU NN NNC [FiHI] FiHU GeLBM [GeLU] GyBH

2481. Hevesi András. "Egy polgár vallomásai. Márai Sándor könyve," Nyugat, XXVII (July 1-16, 1934), 69-72.

A review of the work critical of his careless use of the elements of time and for his recollections of his surroundings in his youth as if he were documenting or cataloging them; commentary on the quality of his tone and on the frequency with which he fled from problems and circumstances in his youth. MnU NN NNC [FiHI] FiHU GeLBM [GeLU] GyBH

2482. Cs. Szabó László. "Egy polgár vallomásai II. Márai Sándor könyve," Nyugat, XXVIII (July, 1935), 47-49.

A review of the work characterizing its treatment of his own problems in becoming and developing as a writer, in order to delineate the bounds faced by most of the young writers who served their apprenticeship in the shaken Europe of the 1920's. MnU NN NNC FiHU GeLBM [GeLU] GyBH

2483. Szerb Antal. "Aféltékenyek. Márai Sándor regénye," Nyugat, XXX (June, 1937), 439-441.

A review maintaining that the novel, having derived its form from the naturalistic traditions, is a classic of purification, having retained everything important in a middle-class naturalistic novel but having lifted itself out of naturalistic prose to the level of poetry - a development consistent with the character of his preceding works. MnU NN NNC [FiHI] FiHU GeLBM GyBH

2484. Illyés Gyula. "Anégy évszak. Márai Sándor könyve," Nyugat, XXXI (June, 1938), 468-470.

A review of the work emphasizing the poetic qualities of its prose, a characteristic present in his other prose writings as well. MnU NN NNC [FiHI] FiHU GeLBM [GeLU] GyBH

2485. Kassák Lajos. "Márai Sándor," Kelet Népe, VI (August 1, 1940), 4-5.

Seeks to characterize his individuality as a writer and the distinguishing traits of his style. Vendégjáték Bolzanóban in its form and substance as illustrative of his characteristics to the present time. [NNC] GyBH

2486. Örley István. "Klasszicizálódás vagy útvesztés. Márai Sándor: Sirály," Magyar Csillag, IV (February 1, 1944), 175-179.

A review of the novel seeking to explain what caused him to lose his "sincerity" and to inject "dissonant voices" into his works since his first period of creativity as represented by Egy polgár vallomásai, Négy évszak, Zendülők, Sziget, Válás Budán, Kabala, Csutora, and Szegények iskolája. MnU NNC AsWN [FiHI] FiHU [GyBH]

2487. Lukács György. "Márai Sándor: Sértődöttek I. Ahang," Új magyar kultúráért. Budapest: Szikra, 1948; 234p. Pp. 221-229. [Appeared in Forum, III (February, 1948), 127-133]

Maintains that the novel reveals his true form with outstanding clarity, contains less playfulness and fewer mannerisms, and expresses his essential conceptions very clearly, so that his place in Hungarian literature can be accurately evaluated. DLC MH AsWN GeLBM GeLU GyBH


Born January 17, 1895 in Hernádszentistván. Poet. Father a school teacher. After completing studies at Premonstratensian gymnasium in Kassa studied philosophy and theology at Pázmány University in Budapest. Poems first appeared in 1915 in Élet. Entered Premonstratensian Order in 1918 and became teacher in Order's gymnasium in Kassa. After Czech government took over schools he became priest in Nagykapos in 1920 and in Királyhelmec in 1929. Fame spread quickly on publication of Hajnali harangszó in 1923. Became member of Petőfi-Társaság, KisfaIudy-Társaság, Janus Pannonius Társaság, and Szent István Akadémia. Acclaimed during visits and lectures in Paris, Lille, and Holland in 1938. Chief editor of Vigilia 1941-1942. Wrote anti-Hitler poem in 1942 issue of Vigilia. After 1945 lived in Pannonhalma withdrawn from literary life. Imprisoned in 1953 and released in September 1956. Served as chaplain in Budapest. Has lived in Pannonhalma since 1961. ¶ Important voice of Catholicism in imaginative literature, whose ideals and optimism he seeks to sustain. Poems romantic. Uses everyday subjects. Advocates ideals of Christian socialism. Style often highly technical. Religious poems generally considered to be best. Became leader of Hungarian writers in Czechoslovakia for a time. ¶ An edition of his poems is available in French, and some of his poems have been translated into Dutch, English, German, Italian, Rumanian, and Slovakian.


2488. Hajnali harangszó. [Versek] Ungvár: Földessy Gyula, 19231. 157p. [Budapest, 19312] NN GeLBM

2489. Rabszolgák énekelnek. Versek. Berlin: Ludwig Voggenreiter, 19251. 151p. [Budapest, 19344] MH NN GyBH GyGGaU

2490. Vigasztaló. Versek. Berlin: Ludwig Voggenreiter, 19271. 130p. [Budapest, ca. 19362] NN GyBH

2491. Az ember és az árnyéka. Versek. Košice-Kassa: AthenaeumKassai Könyvnyomda, 19301. 149p. [ca.19462] NN GyBH

2492. Bolond Istók bábszínháza. [Verses mese] Budapest: A Napkelet, 19311. 31p.

2493. Üveglegenda. Versek. Budapest: Athenaeum, 19311 [1930?]. 133p. GeLBM GyBH

2494. Legyen világosság! Versek. Budapest: Athenaeum, 19331. 157p. MH NN GeLBM

2495. Válogatott költeményei. Összeállította Just Béla. Budapest: Athenaeum, 1934. 232p. [19362] AsWN GeLBM GeLU

2496. Megdicsőülés. Legszebb versei. Budapest: Mécs-Mártoncsik Imre Bibliofil, 1935. 48p. MH

2497. Fehéren és kéken. Versek. Budapest: Athenaeum, 19361 [1937?]. 156p. MH GeLBM GyBH

2498. Élőket nézek! Versek. Budapest: Magyar Katolikus Írók Könyvei, 19381. 146p. NN

2499. Forgószínpad. Versek. Budapest: Athenaeum, 19401. 153p. NN GyBH

2500. Huszonötéves költői munkássága alkalmából, a költő négy kiadatlan írásával Mécs Imre, Semetkay József, stb. [Versek és próza Mécstől; továbbá tanulmányok és emlékezések Mécsről] Budapest: Danubia, 19411. 63p.

2501. Összes versei. 1920-1940. Budapest: Athenaeum, 19411. 760p. DLCAsWN

2502. Anya kell! Versek lányokról és anyákról. Budapest: Athenaeum, 19431. 90p.


See no. 2504.


See also no. 4624.

2503. Bodor Aladár. "Mécs László," Debreceni Szemle, II (1928), 8-20.

Some biographical details but mainly a discussion of his attitudes toward the problems of his society and other questions as providing a basis for his evangelical beliefs, and an analysis of his style, both leading to the establishment of the contemporaneity of his poetry. MH MnU GyBH

2504. Farkas Gyula. Mécs László. Budapest: Studium, 1929. 63p.

Attention to the development of his poetry and the characteristics of his poems. Seen as the "prophet" of evangelical belief who made significant and lasting contributions to Hungarian poetry. Much use of materials from his poems. Contains some biographical details. Bibliography of his works and studies about him, p. 62. NNC FiHI GyBH

2505. Just Béla. Mécs László. Budapest: A Szerző, 1930. 9p.

In three parts: (1) his view of God and man's relation with Him, (2) his concept of man's life on earth, and (3) his poetic artistry. Much use of quotations from his poetry. GeLBM

2506. Gábor Géza. Mécs László. Sopron: Vitéz Tóth Alajos, 1934. 38p.

His concepts of various aspects of man's life and society through evidence from his poems; also some discussion of his poetic methods. Seen as one whose love for Hungary, his countrymen, and mankind stems from his evangelical beliefs in God.

2507. "Mécs László-szám," Vigilia, VII (1941), 217-253.

A number commemorating the 20th anniversary of his literary career. Articles include one by Sándor Reményik finding Mécs's essence in the concept of the alternation, the interchange of God and man, and on "Vitatkozás a hírharanggal" as showing his full spirit and character; another by Zsolt Alszeghy on the significant impressions of their first meeting, on Mécs's expressions of his love for Hungary, and on his thought. NNC


Born August 1690 in Zágon; died October 2, 1761 in Rodosto, Turkey. Prose writer, translator. Descendant of ancient aristocratic family. Entered Jesuit College in Kolozsvár in 1700. In 1707 joined service of Prince Ferenc Rákóczi (q.v.) as personal aide. Accompanied Rákóczi to Poland in 1711 and through Danzig to France. Lived in France, January 13, 1713 - September 15, 1717, where he became acquainted with French culture and literature, and lived afterwards in Rodosto with exiles. Banishment made him a writer. Participated in expedition of József Rákóczi to Transylvania in 1738. Requested pardon from Maria Theresa in 1741, after death of Ferenc Rákóczi, but it was denied (Ex Turcia nulla redemptio). Died of plague. ¶ His Törökországi levelek, published in 1794, is a landmark in the history of Hungarian literary prose, characterized by unaffected expressions of views, emotions, and persons and by personal interpretive style. He also prepared many translations: Fleury, Benoît van Haeften, Pouget, Antoine de Courtin, Calmet, Gobinet, Mélicque, Le Tourneux, Mme. de Gomez. ¶ An edition of Törökországi levelek is available in Turkish, and some of its parts in French, Italian, and Polish.

FIRST EDITION: Törökországi levelek, mellyekben a II-ik Rákótzi Ferentz fejedelemmel bujdosó magyarok történetei más egyébb emlékezetes dolgokkal együtt barátságossan előadatnak. Most pedig az eredetképpen való magyar kézirásokból kiadta Kultsár István. Szombathely: Siess, 1794. 490p. - See also nos. 2509 (vol. 1) and 2510.


See also nos. 2518, 2523, 2526, 2532, and 2535.

2508. Törökországi levelei. A szerző saját kéziratából életrajzi értekezéssel közli Toldy Ferenc. I-II. kötet. Pest: Heckenast Gusztáv, 1861. [C]

1. kötet: 10. október. 1717-1720.-3. október. 1728. 224p.

2. kötet: 18. április. 1729-20. december. 1758. Mikes Kelemen élete. 246p.


2509. Művei. Kiadja Abafi Lajos. I-II. kötet. Budapest: Aigner Lajos, 1879-1880. [C]

1. kötet: Mulatságos napok. [Beszély-ciklus] Életrajzi bevezetéssel. 18791. 341p.

2. kötet: Törökországi levelek. 1880. 436p.


2510. Kiadatlan kéziratai. Ismerteti Papp Endre. Budapest: Engelmann Mór, 18951. 59p. [C] NNC

2511. Törökországi levelek. Kiadta, bevezetéssel és jegyzetekkel ellátta Császár Elemér. Budapest: Lampel R., 1905. 312p. [C] DLC MnU NNC OCl GeLU

2512. Törökországi levelei. A magyar királyi kormány támogatásával, II. Rákóczi Ferencz hamvainak hazaszállítása alkalmából készült emlékkiadása. A bevezető tanulmányokat írták Négyesy László, Thaly Kálmán, Beöthy Zsolt, Szily Kálmán, Erődi Béla. A leveleket az eredeti kézirat alapján kiadja Miklós Ferenc. [Best edition until superseded by critical edition under preparation, no. 2517] Budapest: Franklin-TársuIat, 1906. 233p. [B] DLC MB MH MnU NN NNC OCl AsWN GeLBM GyBH

2513. Törökországi levelei. Sajtó alá rendezte és bevezetéssel ellátta Erődi Béla. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 1906. 378p. [B] DLC NN NNC AsWU FiHI GeCU GyBH GyGGaU

2514. Válogatott törökországi levelei. Bevezette és jegyzetekkel ellátta Bánóczi József. Budapest: Lampel Róbert, 1930. 110p. [C] AsWN GeLU GyBH

2515. Levelek a száműzetésből. A válogatás, a bevezetés és a jegyzetek Lukácsy Sándor munkája. Budapest: Ifjúsági Könyvkiadó, 1953. 163p. [C]

2516. Törökországi levelek. Sajtó alá rendezte Bisztray Gyula, a bevezetést írta s a jegyzeteket összeállította Barta János. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1958. 386p. [C] MnU NNC GeLBM GyBDS

2517. Összes művei. Szerkeszti Hopp Lajos. Eddig I. kötet. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1966+. [A]

1. kötet: Törökországi levelek és misszilis levelek. Sajtó alá rendezte Hopp Lajos. 1966. 863p.



See nos. 2520 and 2521.


2518. Abafi Lajos. Mikes Kelemen. Budapest: Rudnyánszky A., 1878. 208p.

His life and thought based on his journals and letters. Includes a chapter on his writings other than the Letters from Turkey, and closes with the texts of five newly uncovered letters. Bibliographical footnotes. MnU NNC AsWN GeLBM

2519. Imre Antal. Mikes Kelemen élete és munkái. Budapest: Rózsa K. és Neje, 1883. 35p.

Concerned mainly with his period with Rákóczi and with the character and style of his writings, especially the Letters from Turkey. Bibliographical footnotes. GyBH

2520. Toncs Gusztáv. Zágoni Mikes Kelemen. Budapest: Lampel Róbert, 1897. 249p.

Purpose: to provide the background for his activities but, above all, to portray the man and his literary characteristics mainly on the basis of the Letters from Turkey in a way more unified and complete than achieved by previous studies. Attention to his other writings. Bibliography, pp. 236-239. MnU FiHI

2521. Gálos Rezső. Mikes Kelemen. Budapest: Művelt Nép, 1954. 139p.

A three-part study of his life and writings, mainly from the beginning of his relations with Rákóczi: (1) alongside Rákóczi, (2) the Letters from Turkey, and (3) the twilight. Chronological list of his works and bibliography, p. 139. DLC MH NNC FiHI GeLBM GyBDS GyBH GyGNSU


See also no. 1008.

2522. Császár Elemér. Mikes "Törökországi levelei"-nek keletkezése. Budapest: Athenaeum, 1895. 43p.

The circumstances and background from which the Letters from Turkey developed. GyBH

2523. Huttkay Lipót. Mikes Kelemen Törökországi levelei. Eger: Rényi Károly, 1905. 63p.

A brief biography followed by a study of his Letters from Turkey: their authenticity, the question of whether they are actual letters or a literary form with Mikes, the manner in which the original letters reached Hungary from Rodosto and the way they became a part of the collection in the Egri Érsekmegyei Könyvtár, the period of their composition, their subject matter, Mikes's distinguishing characteristics, and the letters recording the illness, death, and burial of Rákóczi. Facsimiles of letters dealing with the illness, death, and burial. GeLBM GyBH

2524. Négyesy László, Thaly Kálmán, Beőthy Zsolt, Szily Kálmán és Erődi Béla. "Bevezető tanulmányok," Zágoni Mikes Kelemen Törökországi levelei. A leveleket az eredeti kézirat alapján kiadja Miklós Ferenc. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 1906; 233p. Pp. v-lxxiii.

Four individual introductory studies to the memorial edition: (1) his life by Négyesy, (2) historical background by Thaly, (3) the place of the work in Hungarian literature by Beöthy, (4) dictionary of words difficult to understand by Szily, and (5) Turkish elements in the work by Erődi. DLC MB MH MnU NN OCl AsWN GeLBM GyBH

2525. Szily Kálmán. "Mikes Törökországi levelei nyelvi szempontból," Magyar Nyelv, II (1906), 337-347.

Explanations of words and expressions in the Letters from Turkey believed to require clarification with the aid of historical dictionaries. Alphabetical. CU CtY DLC MH NNC AsWU FiHI GeLBM GyGNSU

2526. Kürti Menyhért. Mikes Kelemen kiadatlan munkái. Eger: Érseki Liceumi Könyvnyomda, 1907. 58p. [Reprinted from Az Ciszterci Rend Katholikus Főgimnáziumának Értesítője az 1906-1907 tanévről, pp. 3-58]

An examination of nine of his previously unpublished works to draw from them his portrait as a religious writer and a moral teacher. Bibliographical footnotes.

2527. Király György. "A Törökországi levelek forrásaihoz," Egyetemes Philologiai Közlöny, XXXIII (1909), 257-277, 334-345. [Also a reprint]

A discussion of letters 172-192, from the Letters from Turkey, as being based on a French translation of Paul Richaut's The history of the present state of the Ottoman Empire (London, 1669). Maintains that this knowledge does not reduce the individuality of Mikes in the Letters. Appendix: Identification of foreign sources in the Letters from Turkey in two categories: (1) short stories and anecdotes and (2) treatises. Bibliographical footnotes. IU MH MnU NNC OClW OCU [AsWN] FiHU GyBH

2528. Király György. "Mikes fordításai," Egyetemes Philologiai Közlöny, XXXVI (1912), 21-28.

Division of his translations into three categories (short stories, travelogues, and religious and moral writings) and the French sources of each work in these categories. Bibliographical footnotes. CU MH MnU NNC OClW OCU AsWN FiHU GyBH

2529. Zolnai Béla. "Mikes Törökországi leveleinek keletkezéséhez," Egyetemes Philologiai Közlöny, XL (1916), 7-32, 90-106.

A study of the genesis of the Letters from Turkey, finding that his borrowing of short stories and educational communications follows literary traditions: Giovanni-Paolo Marana's Espion turc (Paris, 1684), the Lettres politiques, historiques et galantes (under pseudonym "D.L.C.," Amsterdam, 1743), Jean-Baptiste de Boyer d'Argens's Lettres juives (La Haye, 1737), Montesquieu's Lettres persanes (Amsterdam, 1721), and the periodical Spectator (1711-1712), the latter being the source from which he borrowed short stories. Bibliographical footnotes. CU IU MH MnU NNC OClW OCU FiHU GyBH

2530. Zolnai Béla. "Mikes Kelemen. (Fejezet az irodalmi gondolat történetéből)," Minerva, IX (1930), 53-79, 165-198.

Purpose: to learn what influence the literary milieu of his times had on his writings. Finds that the intellectual elements in Transylvania, Paris, and Rodosto predestined him to become a writer, that both Mulatságos napok and his literary opinion in the middle of the 18th century were oldfashioned and governed by moral viewpoints, and that the literary form of the Letters from Turkey develops from the mental frame of the "gáláns précieux âge." Bibliographical footnotes. DLC NjP NN NNC FiHI FiHU GyBH GyGNSU

2531. Zolnai Béla. "Mikes eszményei," Minerva, XVI (1937), 3-55.

A consideration of the characteristics and sources of his humanism (in a non-classical sense) in his readings, numerous learned men, his relations with Rákóczi at Rodosto, his study and translations of the writings of the Jansenists, his religious outlook coming under the unconscious influence of Jansenism, and the determination of his ideals and philosophical position by the Port Royal. Much discussion of the specific sources and individuals making up his milieu. Bibliographical footnotes. DLC NjP NN NNC [FiHI] FiHU GyBH

2532. Szigeti József. "Mikes Kelemen," Mikes Kelemen: Törökországi levelek. A könyvet szerkesztette és a bevezetőt írta Szigeti József. Bukarest: Állami Irodalmi és Művészeti Kiadó, 1956; 452p. Pp. 5-72.

An introduction providing the major details of his life by periods and sections on the origin of the Letters from Turkey, on his view of the reigning prince and the war for freedom, on his love of his country and judgments of society, on his relation with the Enlightenment, on his language and style, and on his Letters and the responses of succeeding generations to the work (to 1848).

2533. Barta János. "Bevezetés," Mikes Kelemen: Törökországi levelek. Sajtó alá rendezte Bisztray Gyula, a jegyzeteket összeállította Barta János. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1958; 386p. Pp. 5-41.

An introduction which, after providing the political background for the exile and the life of the colony at Rodosto, discusses his development and the course of his career as a man and writer, and examines the substance and form of the Letters as to their characteristics, their place in the literary genres of the early 18th century, and the nature of their epical materials. MnU NNC GeLBM GyBDS

2534. Hopp Lajos. "A Törökországi levelek műfaji problémái," Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelv- és Irodalomtudományi Osztályának Közleményei, XV (1959), 129-152.

A critical survey of the attitudes toward his Letters and the scholarly critical attention given to the work, especially in regard to the difficulties presented by its literary form. Suggests that the form is found in the letters of Roger de Rabutin and Mme. de Sévigné, at the end of the 17th century - the genre of "letters." Bibliographical footnotes. DLC MnU NNC GyBDS GyBH GyGNSU

2535. Hopp Lajos. "Mikes Kelemen utolsó levelei. Halálának kétszázadik évfordulójára," Irodalomtörténeti Közlemények, LXV (1961), 517-532.

A discussion of five letters to his relatives in Transylvania written from 1758 to 1761 showing their connection with the threads of his earlier letters and maintaining that they prove his literary career closed not in 1758, the accepted date, but in 1761. Bibliographical notes. Summary in French, pp. 531-532. DLC MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GyBH