Born October 1, 1713 in Ludány; died August 6, 1792 in Pécel. Poet. Son of Pál Ráday, a writer and secretary to Ferenc Rákóczi II (q.v.). Went to Odera-Frankfurt in 1732 to complete university studies and began to write poetry. Returned to Ludány in 1733 and pursued literary activities. Assembled large library, established relationships with most famous writers of the day, and encouraged their efforts. About 1740 married Katalin Szentpéteri, who assisted him with library collection. Parliamentary representative of Pest County in 1764. Met Ferenc Kazinczy (q.v.) in 1772 in Sárospataki Református Kollégium and formed a lasting friendship. Named baron in 1782 by Joseph II, count in 1790 by Leopold II. Counseled in publication of Magyar Museum and Orpheus. ¶ Did not fulfill all his plans to write, but is important for the first deliberate use of West European meters in Hungarian poetry, and those rhymed quantitative meters he used were known by his name ("Ráday vers"). In notes to his poems explored problems of poetic form and versification. Most of his poetry remained in manuscript and was lost. He was the first to see the importance of Miklós Zrínyi (q.v.). His library of approximately 100,000 volumes stood alone among private libraries in 18th-century Hungary; is now housed in Református Theológiai Akadémia, in Budapest. ¶ Some of his poems have been translated into English and German.


See also no. 3039 (letters).

3035. Összes művei. Összegyűjtötte s bevezette Váczy János. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 18921. 186p. [B] AsWU GeLBM


See no. 3038.


See also nos. 1759 and 1895.

3036. Kazinczy Ferenc. "Ráday Gedeon," Kortársak nagy írókról. Második sorozat. A válogatás és a jegyzetek Lukácsy Sándor munkája. Budapest: Művelt Nép, 1956; 478p. Pp. 7-13. [Written in 1808; appeared in Kazinczy Ferenc: Magyar Pantheon, in Összes munkái, V,1-19; see no. 1873]

A series of Kazinczy's personal recollections of Ráday. DLC MnU NNC FiHU GyBDS

3037. Rupp Kornél. "A Ráday-könyvtár," Magyar Könyvszemle, V (1897), 173-180.

Mainly a list of 31 of the most notable titles in the Ráday library possessed by the Budapesti Református Theológiai Akadémia, and the sources from which the collection derived. ICJ MiU NNC AsWN AsWU GeLBM GyBH

3038. Vas Margit. Ráday Gedeon élete és munkássága. Budapest: Sárkány, 1932. 48p.

Abrief survey of his life followed by a discussion of his library, his Péczeli manor house as a center of literature, his influence on Kazinczy, his personality, his poetry, and his importance to Hungarian literature. Bibliography, p. 3.

3039. Gálos Rezső. "Levéltári adatok Ráday Gedeon diákkoráról," Irodalomtörténeti Közlemények, LVII (1953), 268-272.

New data concerning his schooling from 1729 to 1732, based on evidence from letters. Bibliographical footnotes. MnU NNC AsWU GeLBM GyBH


3040. Arany János. "Ráday Gedeon," Összes prózai művei és műfordításai. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 1938; 2211p. Pp. 500-511. [Appeared in Koszorú, II (June 28, 1864), 601-605]

A discussion of the poetry of his times, attention to the poetry written by his father, and an analysis of his verse and techniques. NNC

3041. Váczy János. "Bevezetés: Ráday Gedeon," Gróf Ráday Gedeon összes művei. Összegyűjtötte s bevezette Váczy János. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 1892; 186p. Pp. 5-46.

The few known details of his life; his desire to establish relations between scholars and writers of his times; his literary development and experiments with rhyme, measures, and strophes; and his relations with and his influence on Kazinczy. Bibliographical footnotes. AsWU GeLBM

3042. Rónay György. "Ráday Gedeon," Irodalomtörténet, L (1962), 41-61.

Concerned with his experiments with West European rhymes and measures in his search for forms fully expressive of substance in Hungarian verse. Attention to his character to explain his failure to institute reforms on the basis of his changes in Hungarian versification, and to his relations with the new generation represented by Kazinczy. CU DLC MH MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GeLU GyBDS GyBH


Born May 5, 1909 in Budapest; died November 6-10(?), 1944 in Abda. Poet, translator. Mother died giving him birth. Orphan when twelve. Raised by mother's younger brother. Poems first appeared in youth periodicals 1926-1927. Completed studies at business school in 1927. Studied textile manufacturing in Liberec, Czechoslovakia, 1927-1928. Clerk in private office 1928-1929. Also completed gymnasium in 1929. Entered University of Szeged in fall 1930 to study Hungarian and French. Became acquainted with Sándor Sík (q.v.) and affiliated himself with Szegedi Fiatalok Művészeti Kollégiuma. Publication of Újmódi pásztorok éneke in spring 1931 resulted in its confiscation and eight-day sentence, which was lifted upon appeal. Spent few weeks in Paris in summer 1931, where he formed relations with French Communist party. On return to Hungary participated in the activities of illegal Hungarian Communist party. Obtained doctorate in philosophy in 1934. Married Fanni Gyarmati in fall of same year. Participated in literary life of Budapest 19351936 and became acquainted with Attila József (q.v.). Obtained teaching certificate in fall 1936 but was unable to secure position. Earnings derived from occasional publications and tutoring, and received help from uncle. Contributed to Gondolat in 1936. Awarded grant by Baumgarten Foundation in 1937. Spent several weeks with wife in Paris in summer 1937. Visited France for few weeks in 1939. Served in forced labor camp in Transylvania in 1940. Participated in anti-fascist demonstration at Petőfi statue in Budapest on March 15, 1942. Summoned for forced labor in May 1944 and sent to Bor, Yugoslavia; then sent to concentration camp in Heidenau, where he worked in copper mine and on road construction. Shot with 22 others near Győr and buried in mass grave. Body, with last poems, was not recovered until 1947. ¶ Lyric poet who confronted his own life in relation to his tragic times. Poems show development through numerous modern poetic influences and political concepts. Achieved their distinctive characteristics during World War II when he was confronted by death. Viewed his own situation and experiences as symbol of the unhappy condition of humanity. Eclogues considered to be highpoint of his creativity. His translations, also important and an influence on his literary development, include the works of La Fontaine, Huizinga, Montherlant, Cervantes, and a collection of African Negro folk tales. ¶ Some of his poems have been translated into Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, English, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Polish, Rumanian, and Russian.

FIRST EDITIONS: Naptár. [Versek] Budapest: Hungaria, 1924. 6 leaves. - Pogány köszöntő. [Versek] Budapest: Kortárs, 1930. 48p. - Újmódi pásztorok éneke. [Versek] Budapest: Fiatal Magyarország, 1931. 49p. - Lábadozó szél. [Versek] Szeged: Szegedi Fiatalok Művészeti Kollégiuma, 1933. 64p. - Ének a négerről, aki a városba ment. [Vers] Budapest: Gyarmati Könyvnyomtatóműhely, 1934. [22]p. - Kaffka Margit művészi fejlődése. Szeged: Szegedi Fiatalok Művészeti Kollégiuma, 1934. 104p. - Újhold. [Versek] Szeged: Szegedi Fiatalok Művészeti Kollégiuma, 1935. 48p. - Járkálj csak, halálraítélt! [Versek] Budapest: Nyugat, 1936. 47p. - Meredek út. [Versek] Budapest: Cserépfalvi, 1938. 60p. - Cervantes: Don Quijote. Radnóti Miklós átdolgozásában. Budapest: Cserépfalvi, n.d. [From Magyar irodalmi lexikon, II, p. 544] - Guillaume Apollinaire válogatott versei. Fordítás. Vas Istvánnal. Budapest, 1940. [From Várkonyi, p. 415] - Ikrek hava. [Önéletrajzi emlékezések] Budapest: Almanach, 1940. 43p. - Válogatott versek. 1930-1940. Budapest: Almanach, 1940. 62p. - J. de La Fontaine: Válogatott mesék. [Fordítás] Budapest, 1943. 72p. [From catalogue of National Széchényi Library] - Orpheus nyomában. Műfordítások kétezer év költőiből. [Képes Gézával, Szemlér Ferenccel és Vas Istvánnal] Budapest: Pharos, 1943. 191p. - Karunga, a holtak ura. Néger népmesegyűjtemény. Budapest: Pharos, 1944. 262p. - Tajtékos ég. [Versek] Budapest: Révai, 1946. 114p. - See also nos. 1946 and 3044.


See also no. 3052 for a translation. Annotated works: nos. 1700 and 1839.

3043. Versei. Sajtó alá rendezte Trencsényi-Waldapfel Imre. [1st collection] Gyoma: Kner Izidor, 1948. 230p. [C] GeLBM GyBH

3044. Tanulmányok, cikkek. E kötetet sajtó alá rendezte Réz Pál. Budapest: Magvető, 19561. 284p. [C] DLC MH MiD FiHI GeLBM GyGNSU

3045. Sem emlék, sem varázslat. Összes versei. Az utószót írta Koczkás Sándor. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1961. 355p. [C] FiHI GyGNSU

3046. Válogatott művei. Sajtó alá rendezte és a bevezetést írta Tolnai Gábor. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1962. 659p. [C] GyBDS GyGNSU

3047. Összes versei. Budapest: Magyar Helikon, 1963. 344p. [C] MH GyBDS

3048. Összes versei és műfordításai. A kötetet Koczkás Sándor rendezte sajtó alá. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 19633. 513p. [B] (19561, 19592) CtY MnU NN NNC FiHU GeLBM GyBDS


3049. Ortutay Gyula. "Radnóti Miklós otthona," Írók, népek, századok. Budapest: Magvető, 1960; 475p. Pp. 157-165. [Appeared in Beszélő házak. Szerkesztette Hatvany Lajos. Budapest: Bibliotheca, 1957; 323p. Pp. 238-245]

Descriptions of his homes in Reichenberg (now Liberec), Szeged and Pest, their contents and atmosphere, and his attitudes toward them, especially the one in Pest (on Pozsonyi út). By one who knew him. DLC MB MnU NN NNC AsWN FiHI FiHU GeLBM GyBDS

3050. Radnóti Miklós. 1909-1944. Szerkesztette Baróti Dezső, a bevezető tanulmányt írta Ortutay Gyula. Budapest: Magyar Helikon, 1959. 191p.

A picture book of persons, places, writings, and documents connected with his life. DLC MnU NN NNC FiHI GeCU GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU


See also no. 4213.

3051. Tolnai Gábor. "Radnóti Miklós. Levél Radnóti Miklóshoz," Vázlatok és tanulmányok. Budapest: Művelt Nép, 1955; 189p. Pp. 109-112. [Appeared in Független Magyarország, no. 32 (August 12, 1946), 2]

Written after Radnóti's death in a German concentration camp, records the news heard about him during his imprisonment, and characterizes his poetry as preparing him for death. By a friend. DLC MH MnU NNC GeLBM

3052. Sőtér István. "La Fontaine és Radnóti Miklós," Romantika és realizmus. Válogatott irodalmi tanulmányok. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1956; 611p. Pp. 599-609. [Appeared as introductory study to Jean de La Fontaine: Válogatott mesék. Fordította Miklós Radnóti. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 1947; 69p. Pp. i-viii]

Maintains that Radnóti drew revolutionary principles in form from LaFontaine's tales and that Radnóti's translation, which was his best work in this medium, helped him to complete his poetic development in a renewal and enrichment of antique forms. (See no. 3053 for a dissenting view) DLC MnU NNC AsWN FiHI GeCU GeLBM GyGNSU

3053. Szabó Lőrinc. "Radnóti Miklós Lafontaine-fordításai," Válasz, VIII(1949), 472-475.

Disagrees with István Sőtér's finding so many connections between the two poets (see no. 3052), and maintains that the poet-translator of the 22 tales wanted to introduce poetic elements of the La Fontaine who is so completely faithful to form. Supports the position by noting the qualities and emphases of the translations. DLC

3054. Vargha Kálmán. "Radnóti Miklós versei," Magyarok, V (1949),161-165.

Traces the increasing power of his verses, their thought, the fulfillment of his recurring motifs, pictures, and symbols as he involves himself in opposition to the ruling forces of his times. DLC MnU NN NNC [FiHI]

3055. Vas István. " 'Oly korban éltem én a földön . . .' (Radnóti Miklós, 1909-1944)," Csillag, IV (1951), 737-742.

Traces his development from his translations (Apollinaire, Jammes, Goethe, Tibullus) toward a clear and true poetry as expressed in a natural classical voice in Meredek út (1938), to his opposition to fascism, especially during World War II. [DLC] MnU [NN] NNC [GeLBM] GyBH [GyGGaU]

3056. Lator László. "Radnóti Miklós költői fejlődése," Irodalomtörténet, XLII (1954), 259-274.

Discusses the editions of his poetry to show his gradual opposition to his times and support of socialistic reform for the elevation of the Hungarian people as he himself experienced the sufferings of his times culminating in the ultimate expression of his thoughts and feelings in his last three volumes, which make his poetry of lasting value to Hungarians. Periods of development grouped as follows: (1) Pogány köszöntő (1930) and Újmódi pásztorok éneke (1931), (2) Lábadozó szél (1933) and Újhold (1935), and (3) Járkálj csak, halálraítélt! (1936), Meredek út (1938), and Tajtékos ég (1944). CU DLC MH MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GyBDS GyBH GyGNSU

3057. Tolnai Gábor. "Jegyzetek Radnóti Miklósról," Vázlatok és tanulmányok. Budapest: Művelt Nép, 1955; 189p. Pp. 113-131. [Appeared as "Radnóti Miklósról" in Irodalmi Újság, V,no. 34 (November 6, 1954), 6]

Comments on his declared opposition to fascism, his search for the "pure and the good" and the "socialistic humanism" that elevated him to a high example in Hungary, the connection between his poetic development and socialism, and the characteristics of his poetry. DLC MH MnU NNC GeLBM

3058. Rónay György. "Két háború között," Vigilia, XX (1955), 183-189.

An analysis of his poetry to show the new generation's break with the influence of the first generation of the Nyugat. Notes his adoption of pastoral idyll and free verse, his prescience of war in the mid-thirties, the shift in his style as the idyllic quality disappears, his view of integrity and morality in writing, and the expression of the essence of his own life in his verses. NN NNC

3059. Tolnai Gábor. "Radnóti Miklós és a felszabadulás előtti szocialista irodalmunk egyes kérdései," Kortárs, II (December, 1958), 871-885.

The influence of the "illegal and increasingly strong" Communist party near the end of the 1920's on his early literary development and on the thought and style of his poetry. DLC MH FiHU GeLBM GyBH

3060. Ortutay Gyula."Radnóti Miklós," Radnóti Miklós. 1909-1944. Szerkesztette Baróti Dezső, a bevezető tanulmányt írta Ortutay Gyula. Budapest: Magyar Helikon, 1959; 191p. Pp. 5-33. [Also in Ortutay's Írók, népek, századok, pp. 135-156; see no. 3255]

Some biographical information, especially about his death and the circumstances attending his last four poems, but mainly the qualities of his poetry. Portrait of a revolutionary, anti-fascist poet. DLC MnU NN NNC FiHI GeCU GyBDS GyGNSU

3061. Kurcz Ágnes. "Aszóhangulat Radnóti Miklós költészetében," Irodalomtörténeti Közlemények, LXIV (1960), 558-571.

His use of words and expressions to evoke emotions concretely. Summary in German, p. 571. DLC MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GyBH

3062. Tolnai Gábor. "Bevezetés," Radnóti Miklós válogatott művei. Sajtó alá rendezte Tolnai Gábor. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1962; 659p. Pp. 5-66.

Traces the establishment of the reputation of his works from 1946 to the present and discusses their place in Hungarian literature. Analyzes the characteristics and development of his poetry. By one who knew him. GyBDS GyGNSU

3063. Nemes István. A képszerűség eszközei Radnóti Miklós költészetében. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1965. 66p.

An analysis of his poetic language, especially his use of imagery. Seeks to show that different kinds of "isms" were present in the development of his imagery and that after he passed beyond symbolism, impressionism, and expressionism, he found his own poetical language and its suitable imagery in lyrical realism. MH MnU AsWN GeLBM GeOB GyBH GyGGaU GyGNSU


Born March 27, 1676 in Borsi; died April 8, 1735 in Rodosto, Turkey. Prose writer, prince, general. Son of Ferenc Rákóczi I, Prince of Transylvania, and Ilona Zrínyi. He was four months old when his father died; his mother moved to Munkács, returned to Borsi in 1677, and returned again to Munkács in 1680. She married Imre Thököly in 1682. The boy was in Vienna in 1688 and in school at a Jesuit monastery in Neuhaus, Bohemia in April of that year. Completed gymnasium studies in 1690 and was sent to the University in Prague. Arrived in Italy in spring 1693 for a year's stay, mostly in Rome. Married Amália Sarolta in 1694 in Köln. Lived in castles in Sárospatak, Szerencs, Eperjes, and elsewhere. In 1700, at urging of Louis XIV of France, began agitation for war against the Hapsburgs. Was seized in 1701, but escaped to Poland. Entered Hungary on June 15, 1703, to lead War of Independence. Was named Prince of Transylvania in 1705. Directed military, political, and cultural activities during the war. Forced to emigrate in 1711, went first to Poland, where he hoped to obtain help from Russians, and then, in 1713, to France, where he lived at the court of Louis XIV until summer 1715, when he withdrew to a cloister in Grosbois. From 1717 on lived in exile in Turkey: in Jenikő, near Constantinople, 1718-1720, and in Rodosto 1720-1735. His remains, though located in Constantinople in 1886, were not returned to Hungary until 1906, for final interment in Kassa. ¶ His lifework, mainly baroque in style, is an intense blending of national political issues and Christian piety. The form of Confessiones (written 17l6-1719), his major literary effort, is based on St. Augustine's Confessions and the Catholic confessional. His Mémoires (written 1717) recounts events of War of Independence from 1703-1711 in analytical and spare style suffused with strong feeling. Wrote many meditations 1718-1722. Poems also have been attributed to him.

FIRST EDITIONS: Imádsága. Mellyel az ő Urának Istenének orczáját mindennapon engesztelni szokta. Debrecen, 1703. [From Szinnyei, XI, 472] - Manifestum Principis Racoczi. Sine loco, 1703. [From Szinnyei, XI, 471] - Histaire des Révolutions de Hongrie . . . Mémoires du Prince François Rákóczi sur la guerre de Hongrie. La Haye: Jean Neaulme, 1739. 379p. - Testament politique et moral du Prince Rakoczi. [Állambölcseleti tanulmányok] T. 1-2. La Haye: Chez Scheuleer, 1751. - See also nos. 3065 and 3068.


See also nos. 3074 (letters), 3090, and 3092.

3064. Emlékirata a magyar hadjáratról. 1703-1711. Közli Ráth Károly. Győr: Sauervein Géza, 1861. 208p. [C] (Rev. ed., 1872, 1886)

3065. II. Rákóczi Ferencz és nevezetesebb kortársainak némely kiadatlan eredeti leveleik. Pest: Ráth Már, 18611. 135p. [C]

3066. [Archivum Rákóczianum].II. Rákóczi Ferencz levéltára, bel- és külföldi irattárakból bővítve. Szerkeszti Thaly Kálmán. I. osztály: I-XII. kötet; 2. osztály: I-III. kötet. Budapest: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, 1871-1935. [A]

l. kötet: Had- és belügy: leveles könyvei, 1703-1706. Közli Thaly Kálmán. 1. kötet. 1873. 688p.

2. kötet: Had- és belügy: leveles könyvei, 1707-1709. Közli Thaly Kálmán. 2. kötet. 1873, 656p.

3. kötet: Had- és belügy: leveles könyvei, 1710-1712. Közli Thaly Kálmán. 3. kötet. 1874. 747p.

4. kötet: Had- és belügy: Székesi gróf Bercsényi Miklós . . . levelei Rákóczi fejedelemhez, 1704-1705. Közli Thaly Kálmán. 1. kötet. 1875. 764p.

5. kötet: Had- és belügy: Székesi gróf Bercsényi Miklós . . . levelei Rákóczi fejedelemhez, 1706-1708. Közli Thaly Kálmán. 2. kötet. 1877. 671p.

6. kötet: Had- és belügy: Székesi gróf Bercsényi Miklós . . . levelei Rákóczi fejedelemhez, 1708-1711. Közli Thaly Kálmán. 3. kötet. 1878. 671p.

7. kötet: Had- és belügy: Székesi gróf Bercsényi Miklós . . . levelei Rákóczi fejedelemhez, 1711-1712. Közli Thaly Kálmán. 4. kötet: Pótkötet. 1879. 224p.

8. kötet: Had- és belügy. Székesi gróf Bercsényi Miklós főhadvezér és fejedelmi helytartó leveleskönyvei s más emlékezetreméltó iratok, 1705-1711. Közti Thaly Kálmán. 1882. 448p.

9. kötet: Had- és belügy: Bottyán János vezénylő tábornok levelezései s róla szóló más emlékezetreméltó iratok, 1685-1716. Közli Thaly Kálmán. 1883. 849p.

10. kötet: Had- és belügy: Pótlékok s betűrendes név- és tárgymutató II. Rákóczi Ferenc levéltára, első osztály I-IX. köteteihez. Közli Thaly Kálmán. 1889. 250p.

11. kötet: Had- és belügy: II. Rákóczi Ferenc felségárulási perének története és okirattára, 1694-1703 aug. 2. Közzétette, történeti bevezető tanulmánnyal és jegyzetekkel ellátta Lukinich Imre. 1. kötet. 1935. 486p.

12. kötet: Had- és belügy: II. Rákóczi Ferenc felségárulási perének története és okirattára, 1701 jún. 15-1711 márc. 23. Függelék: II. Rákóczi Ferenc kiadatlan levelei Károlyi Sándorhoz, 1708-1711. Közzéteszi, történeti bevezető tanulmánnyal és jegyzetekkel ellátta Lukinich Imre. 2. kötet. 1935. 640p.

1. kötet: 2. osztály. Diplomatia: Angol diplomatiai iratok II. Rákóczi Ferenc korára, 1703-1705 jan. 21. Angol levéltárakból. Közli Simonyi Ernő. 1.kötet. 1871. 639p.

2. kötet: 2. osztály. Diplomatia: Angol diplomatiai iratok II. Rákóczi Ferenc korára, 1705 jan. 24-1706 máj. Angol levéltárakból. Közli Simonyi Ernő. 2. kötet. 1873. 642p.

3. kötet: 2. osztály. Diplomatia: Angol diplomatiai iratok II. Rákóczi Ferenc korára, 1706 máj. 2-1711/12 feb. 27. Angol levéltárakból. Közli Simonyi Ernő. 3. kötet. 1877. 496p.


3067. Emlékiratai a magyar háborúról, 1703-tól végéig [1711.] Közli Thaly Kálmán. 5. javított, történeti jegyzetekkel kísért, Rákóczy végrendeletével és a bujdosók sírfelirataival bővített kiadás. Budapest: Ráth Mór, 1872. 335p. [B] (18611) NN

3068. Confessiones et aspirationes principis Christiani. Edidit Commissio Fontium Historiae Patriae Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. Budapest: Bibliopolium Academiae Hungaricae, 18761. 589p. [B] DLC FiHI FiHU GeCU GyGNSU

3069. Önéletrajza. A latin eredetiből fordította Domján Elek. Miskolc: Szelényi és Társa, 1903. 439p. [C] NNC

3070. Vallomásaiból. Latinból fordította Kajlós Imre. 1-2. füzet. Budapest: Lampel Róbert, 1903-1904. [C]

3071. Elmélkedései és fohászai. Alatin és francia szövegekből válogatta és fordította Várdai Béla. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 1946. 79p. [C]

3072. Emlékiratai. Fordította Vas István. Bevezette Pach Zsigmond Pál. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1951. 243p. [B] DLC MH MnU NNC GyBDS

3073. Válogatott levelei. Szerkesztette és a bevezető tanulmányt írta Köpeczi Béla. [List of sources, pp. 360-364] Budapest: Bibliotheca, 1958. 367p. [C]NN NNC FiHI GeLBM GeOB GyBDS


See nos. 3073, 3076, 3079, 3080, 3081, 3088, and 3089.


See also nos. 1590, 2298, 2300, 2519, 2521, 2523, and 2531.

3074. Thaly Kálmán. II. Rákóczi Ferenc fejedelem ifjúsága. 1676-1701. Történeti tanulmány. Második, javított és bővített, jutányos kiadás. Pozsony: Stampfel Károly, 1882?. 376p. [18811]

Purpose: to show the changing phases of his childhood and youth and to depict the surroundings which affected his revolutionary tendencies. Based on original letters and other contemporary sources. Bibliographical footnotes. MH NN NNC OCl

3075. Márki Sándor. II. Rákóczi Ferencz. I-III. kötet. Budapest: Magyar Történelmi Társulat, 1907-1910.

An attempt to provide an accurate portrait of the man and the historical events in which he participated. Considerable attention to the times. Bibliographical footnotes. Illustrations and facsimiles. Vol. I, 1676-1707; vol. II, 1707-1708; vol. III, 1709-1735. DLC MH NN NNC AsWN GeCU GyBH

3076. Szekfű Gyula. A száműzött Rákóczi. Budapest: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, 1913. 418p.

His life and activities during his exile, or the last 20 years of his life, beginning with 1715. Bibliographical notes, pp. 338-398. MH NN NNC AsWN GeCU GeOB GyGGaU GyGNSU

3077. Márki Sándor. II. Rákóczi Ferenc élete. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 1925. 146p.

A simple narrative of his life and historical importance. NN NNC GeLU GyBH

3078. Zolnai Béla. II. Rákóczi Ferenc könyvtára. Budapest: Királyi Magyar Egyetemi Nyomda, 1926. 27p.

The 112 titles in his library at Rodosto examined under three subject headings: (1) the books of the saintly man (theology, counter-reformation, religiousness, Jansenism, mysticism, occultism), (2) the books of the courtier (princely pastimes, the education of a courtier, belles-lettres), and (3) the books of the philosopher (history, travel books, natural science, philosophy). A bibliography of the titles, pp. 20-27. GeLBM GyBH

3079. Asztalos Miklós. II. Rákóczi Ferenc és kora. Budapest: Dante, ca.1934. 492p.

Extensive attention to his times. Critical bibliography, pp. 488-492. Portraits and illustrations. NN NNC OCl GeLBM GyGNSU

3080. Markó Árpád. II. Rákóczi Ferenc a hadvezér. Budapest: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, 1934. 448p.

His activities as a general, as organizer, strategist and soldier-politician, and director of battles. Illustrations and maps of battles. Bibliographical notes, pp. 393-418. NNC AsWN AsWU FiHU GeOB GyBH

3081. Köpeczi Béla és R.Várkonyi Ágnes. II. Rákóczi Ferenc. Budapest: Művelt Nép, 1955. 407p.

Major attention to the Kuruc war for freedom, 1703-1711. Bibliographical notes, pp. 397-407. DLC MH NNC AsWN GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

3082. Zolnai Béla. "Rákóczi bécsújhelyi olvasmányai," Irodalomtörténeti Közlemények. LXIX (1955), 288-295.

Identification of and details about 21 books he read in prison in Wiener-Neustadt and their connections with his other readings. Shows, above all, that in his early years he was already strongly interested in the themes of statecraft, world history, and church history. DLC MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GyBH

3083. Heckenast Gusztáv. "II. Rákóczi Ferenc könyvtára (1701)," Irodalomtörténeti Közlemények, LXII (1958), 25-36.

A list of 169 titles in his library in 1701 preserved in the archives of the Pálffy family in Czechoslovakia, and an analysis of their contents to indicate his reading background as a preparation for his life. Shows him to have prepared early for a political career. Bibliographical footnotes. Summary in French, p. 36. DLC MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GyBH


3084. Karácsonyi János. "II. Rákóczi Ferenc fejedelem vallomásai," Katholikus Szemle, XVII (1903), 627-655.

The sources, genesis, and connections between his Confessiones and his religious concepts and his view of himself in relation to God. Attention to the influence of St. Augustine's Confessions on the Confessiones. NNC AsWU GyBH

3085. Dombi Márk. II. Rákóczi Ferenc a költészetben. Baja: Kazal József, 1904. 38p. [Reprinted from A Cisterci Rend Bajai Katholikus Főgimnáziumának Értesítője, 1903/1904 (1904), 3-38]

The treatment and views of him found in Hungarian poetry to Ede Szigligetsi's II. Rákóczi Ferenc fogsága. Bibliographical footnotes.

3086. Fraknói Vilmos. "II. Rákóczy Ferenc vallásos élete és munkái," Katholikus Szemle, XVIII (1904), 321-337, 421-434.

The background contributing to his sense of a religious mission in his life, the details of that religious life, and the concepts of religion and morality expressed in his writings. NNC AsWU GyBH

3087. Rákóczi. Emlékkönyv halálának kétszázéves évfordulójára. Szerkesztette Lukinich Imre: I-II. kötet. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 1935.

A memorial book containing 18 studies of his life and thought, including his place in Hungarian poetry and in German and French literature, and the background of his period. Illustrations and facsimiles. [No clear division of contents into volumes] NN NNC FiHI GeLBM

3088. Szitás Ilona. II. Rákóczi Ferenc a magyar irodalomban. Budapest:Merkantil, 1937. 62p.

Atreatise on Rákóczi in Hungarian literature from the 18th century to the 1930's, and the manner in which he is utilized and characterized in each of the periods. Bibliography, pp. 51-61. MH GyBH

3089. Zolnai Béla. II.Rákóczi Ferenc. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 1942. 224p.

Emphasizes his intellectual ideas in all his activities, his connections with the history and concepts of his times, and his significant role as a pathbreaker for Hungarian intellectualism during the beginning of the 18th century. Chronological table of important events in his life, pp. 6-8. Bibliographical notes, pp. 208-217. NN NNC AsWN GeCU

3090. Vas István. "Rákóczi emlékiratai. Bevezetés," Évek és művek. Kritikák és tanulmányok, 1934-1956. Budapest: Magvető, 1958; 478p. Pp. 177-193. [Appeared as introductory study, "Rákóczi," to II. Rákóczi Ferenc emlékiratai. Fordította és a bevezető tanulmányt írta Vas István. Budapest: Révai, 1948; 237p. Pp. 5-19]

Provides the background of the composition and the first edition of Emlékiratok, and the history of succeeding editions as well as views about Rákóczi. Considers the work as understandable only in the light of present day perceptions. Commentary on his strength as a narrator, his style, the poetical qualities and thought in the work, and his feeling of strangeness among the aristocrats, By the translator of the work. DLC MnU FiHI GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

3091. Vas István. "Rákóczi, az író," Csillag, VI (1953), 1033-1040.

Explains the delay in publication of his works in Hungary on the basis of his attitudes being unwelcome to officialdom and of their not being written in Hungarian. Analyzes his use of the autobiographical genre in Önéletrajz and comments on the novel-like methods of narration in Emlékiratok. Some attention to the influence of St. Augustine and Rousseau. [DLC] MnU [NN] NNC [GeLBM] GyBH [GyGGaU]

3092. V. Windisch Éva. "Rákóczi Ferenc ismeretlen hadtudományi munkája," Irodalomtörténeti Közlemények, LVII (1953), 29-56.

Provides the background of his involvement in the problems of military science and tactics in his war for the freedom of Hungary and discusses the genesis and details of "Hadakozó embernek tanító scholája," his study of military science. Text of the work provided. Attention to his knowledge of studies of the subject in his times. Bibliographical footnotes. MnU NNC AsWU GeLBM GyBH

3093. Tolnai Gábor. "Rákóczi Ferenc, az író," Vázlatok és tanulmányok. Budapest: Művelt Nép, 1955; 189p. Pp. 68-87. [A paper presented to the Language and Literature Section, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, on October 19, 1953; appeared in A Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelv- és Irodalomtudományi Osztályának Közleményei, V (1954), 219-234]

Attacks the "bourgeois method" of analyzing Rákóczi and other writers(especially Babits on János Arany), and discusses the characteristics of a writer from a Marxist-Leninist point of view. Examines the sources and nature of his ideals and beliefs, and discusses his writings of the period of the war for freedom and those he wrote in exile with regard to their ideals, style, and characteristics in each period. (See no. 3094 for reply) DLC MHMnU GeLBM

3094. Zolnai Béla. "Megjegyzések a Rákóczi-kérdéshez," Irodalomtörténet, XLV (1957), 1-8.

A reply to Gábor Tolnai's study (no. 3093) and Tamás Esze's researches on the Kuruc period under the following headings: the connections between his intellectual history and Jansenism, the significance of his not having composed his major works in Hungary as affecting the judgment of them, and the questions of viewing him as a warrior for freedom or an exile and as a pious or theological writer. Bibliographical footnotes. CU DLC MH MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GeLU GyBDS GyBH

3095. Köpeczi Béla. "II. Rákóczi Ferenc, a levélíró," II. Rákóczi Ferenc válogatott levelei. Szerkesztette és a bevezető tanulmányt írta Köpeczi Béla. Budapest: Bibliotheca Kiadó, 1958; 367p. Pp. 5-35.

The letters considered as the genre of "missives," as revelations of his thoughts and feelings and activities as a politician, general and diplomat, and for their literary qualities and letter-writing techniques. NN NNC FiHI GeLBM GeOB GyBDS


Born August 30, 1890 in Kolozsvár, Transylvania; died October 24, 1941 in Kolozsvár. Poet. Pseudonym: Végvári. Son of a well-known architect whose bequest of his estate made possible comfortable life for son. Completed studies at Reformed gymnasium in Kolozsvár. Began law studies at University of Kolozsvár but never completed them, partly because of nervous eye disease. Independent income enabled him to devote life to literary activity. Writings first appeared in Dobsina és Vidéke and then in Ellenzék, Kolozsvári Hírlap, and Az Újság. Poems first appeared in 1916 in Új Idők. Contributed regularly to Erdélyi Szemle. A co-founder, later editor of Pásztortűz. Awarded Petőfi-Társaság Prize for poetry in 1926. ¶ Important lyric poet in Rumaniabetween two World Wars. Early poems dealt with injustices to Hungarians living in Rumania. Sought to infuse religious and humanistic ideals through his poems and to show joys and sufferings and moral struggles of humanity. Subject matter that of nature, everyday happenings, and simple human acts. Later poems concerned with social questions, including criticisms of dominant social classes. ¶ Some of his poems have been translated into Czech, English, French, German, Italian, Polish, Rumanian, Slovakian and Swedish.

FIRST EDITIONS: Fagyöngyök. Versek. Kolozsvár: A Szerző, 1918. 78p. - Rainer Mária Rilke versei. Fordítás. Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Szemle, 1919. 16p. - Segítsetek! Hangok a végekről, 1918-1919. [Versek] Budapest: Magyarország Területi Épségének Védelmi Ligája, 1919. 63p. - Csak így. Versek. Kolozsvár, 1920. [From Pintér, VIII, 904] - Mindhalálig. Versek, 1918-1921. Budapest: Kertész József, 1921. 55p. - Vadvizek zugása. Versek. Radnaborberek, 1921 június-július. Kolozsvár: Minerva, 1921. 46p. - Versek. Hangok a végekről, 1918-1921. Budapest: Kertész József, 1921. 120p. - A műhelyből. Versek. Budapest: Studium, 1924. 88p. - Atlantisz harangoz. Versek. Budapest: Magyar Irodalmi Társaság, 1925. 84p. - Egy eszme indul: Versek. Kolozsvár: Az Út, 1925. 234p. - Gondolatok a költészetről. [Tanulmány] Arad: Vasárnap, 1926. 62p. - Fagyöngyök. Csak így. Vadvizek zugása. Rilke fordítások. [Versek] Cluj-Kolozsvár: Minerva, 19272. 201p. [Earliest known ed ] - Két fény között. Versek. Cluj-Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Szépmíves Céh, 1927. 79p. Szemben az örökméccsel. Versek. Budapest: Studium, 1930. 74p. - Kenyér helyett. Versek. Budapest: Magyar Protestáns Irodalmi Társaság, 1932. 44p. - Romon virág. Versek, 1930-1935. Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Szépmíves Céh, 1935. 250p. - Magasfeszültség. Versek, 1935-1940. Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Szépmíves Céh, 1940. 103p. - See also no. 3097.


See also 2507.

3096. Összes versei. Budapest: Révai, 1941. 477p. [1944] NN NNC GyBH

3097. Egészen. Hátrahagyott versek. [Contains Korszerűtlen versek]Kolozsvár: Erdélyi Szépmíves Céh, 19421. 162p.


See nos. 3098 and 3104.


3098. Jancsó Elemér. Reményik Sándor élete és költészete. Kolozsvár: Lyceum, 1942. 44p. [Reprinted from A Kolozsvári Református Kollégium 1941-42-ik évi Évkönyve]

Both a biography and a study of the subject matter and form of his poetry, giving attention to the phases of his poetic development, to his roots in literary tradition, and to the forces affecting him. A chronological bibliography of studies about him, from 1920 to 1942, pp. 35-44. FiHI GyBH


3099. Rédey Tivadar. "Reményik Sándor lírája," Napkelet, VI (1925), 286-291.

A review of Egy eszme indul, a collection representing five years of literary productivity: the importance of God in his poems; his voice as being that of the Old Testament; his individuality as a lyric poet; the influence of Rilke, János Arany, Endre Ady and Mihály Babits; his use of meters; and his style as placing him nearer to Hungarian classical poetry than to contemporary impressionism. GyBH

3100. Rass Károly. Reményik Sándor. Cluj-Kolozsvár: Minerva, 1926. 16p.

Brief analyses of his character and writings: the soul of the prophet as the force reconstructing both the poet and the man; the life-functions of the prophetic soul as differing from those of other men; his being the national poet of Hungary with a Transylvanian patina; his having the true soul of a poet; his artistry; and his similarities to Ferenc Kölcsey. GyBH

3101. Németh László. "Reményik Sándor," Protestáns Szemle, XXXVI(1927), 442-446.

A sketch of his poetry and thought, and his place in the expression of a "troubled" Transylvania. Emphasis on his poetry as thought attired in verse form. CtY NjP NNC NNUT GeLBM GeLU GyBH

3102. Tavaszy Sándor. "Reményik Sándor természetszemlélete," Pásztortűz, XXVI (1940), 501-503.

A discussion of his views of nature as contrasted with those of Lajos Áprily, finding that not only aesthetic but ethical beauty emerges for him in nature. GyBH

3103. Németh László. "Reményik Sándor," Készülődés. A Tanú előtt. I-II. kötet. Budapest: Magyar Élet, 1942. I, 108-113. [1st publication?]

A study maintaining that his later verses merely dress his thought with poetic form, that each verse is a sentence or a germ of thought crumbling into verses, and that, for this reason, the thought is often diluted. Also describes his versification as being as smooth as possible and as using an undistinctive iambus, his rhymes and rhythmic patterns as unostentatious, and his creative strength in language as not being large and as using commonplaces. Believes that in time the reflective character of his poetry may lessen. InU NNC FiHI GyBH GyGNSU

3104. Boross István. AJánus-arcú költő. (Reményik-Végvári emlékezete) 1890-1941. Mezőtúr: Corvina, 1943. 41p.

Miscellaneous questions connected with his writings, artistry, and ideas: the general characteristics of his poetry, the influence of his surroundings on his writings, theJanus in Vadvizek zugása and "Végvári versek," Protestantism in his writings, his attitude toward the question of Transylvania, the form and thought of his lyric poetry, etc. Bibliography of his works and studies about him, pp. 3-4.

3105. Kristóf György. "Reményik Sándor," Erdélyi Múzeum, XLIX (1944),21-32. [Also a reprint]

The man and his poetry as "apostolic expressions" of post-Trianon Transylvania. NN GyBH

3106. Nagy István. "Reményik Sándor a magyar polgárság nacionalista kiöltője," A harc hevében. Irodalmi vallomások és észrevételek. Marosvásárhely: Állami Irodalmi és Művészeti Kiadó, 1957; 271p. Pp. 112-124.

An evaluation of his writings form the viewpoint of international communism and class. Maintains that when he wrote under the pseud. "Végvári," calling for the return of the "old Hungary," he failed to understand that the Hungarian worker and the Rumanian proletariat were struggling for the same end. States that when he stopped writing chauvinistic verses under that name, he adopted the mask of a passive lyric poet to force the emerging Hungarian factory worker into passivity. MH GyBDS GyGNSU


Born July 19, 1900 in Dormánd; died December 30, 1962 in Budapest. Novelist, short-story writer. Descendant of middle landowning family. Completed gymnasium studies in Eger. Entered law academy in Nagyvárad, interrupted studies after year, and completed them in Budapest. Turned attention to literary career early and, in preparation for it, began extensive world travels before completing university education. Lived in South America 1920-1927 working as cabaret pianist, smuggler, and clothing outfitter. First two works were published in this period: La tentacion de los asesinos (Chile, 1922) and Las tres tragedias del lampero halIucinado (Peru, 1924). On return to Hungary he entered literary life. Writings first appeared in Hungary in A Hét, Ma, and Nyugat. With Aladár Tamás and Sándor Bortnyik he founded Új Föld (1927) which published works of Communist writers and ceased after three numbers. Prosecuted for anti-religious ideas contained in Bolhacirkusz in 1932. Became contributor and member of editorial staff of Szép Szó. Associated himself with populist writers. Corresponded with Zoltán Fábry (q.v.) for many years. Lived in United States 1939-1941. Returned to Hungary exhibiting more conservative tendencies 1941-1944. Eighteen works were published after 1945. Atyai ház staged in 1943 and Kard és kocka in 1955; the latter also produced as film. ¶ Novels draw extensively on vast number of experiences obtained in travels. Picaresque in form. Broke new ground in Hungarian novel by experimenting with its techniques. Free and uncontrolled in organization. Critical of ruling social classes. Strongly critical of inhumanity of capitalism. Historical and philosophical viewpoints influenced by Spinoza and Bernard Shaw.


3107. Hetedik hónap. Op. I. Budapest: Új Föld, 19271. 55p.

3108. Bolhacirkusz. Regény. Budapest: Spitzer Aladár, 19321. 231p. [19592] IC NNC AsWN GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

3109. Mese habbal. Regény. Budapest: Faust, 19341. 255p. [19592] NNC AsWN GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

3110. A költő és a valóság. [Regény] Budapest: Pantheon, 19351. 206p. [1965]IC FiHU GeLBM

3111. Bűntudat. Egy Goethe idézet margójára. [Regényes önéletrajz] Budapest: Pantheon, 19371. 253p. [19542] MH MnU GeLBM GyBH GyGNSU

3112. Nagytakarítás vagy a szellem kötéltánca. [Röpirat] Budapest: Viktória, 19371 [1936?]. 94p.

3113. Téli gondok. [Esszé] Budapest: Pantheon, 19371. 54p. GeLBM

3114. Sarjadó fű. [Életrajz és regény] Budapest: Cserépfalvi, 19381. 310p. [19622] DLC NN NNC OCl GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

3115. Vész és kaland. [Regény] Budapest: Athenaeum, 19401. 231p. [1960] MnU AsWN GeLBM GyBH

3116. Amerikai ballada. [Útleírás] Budapest: Antiqua, 19421. 240p. GeLU

3117. Az atyai ház. Színmű három felvonásban. Budapest: Új Idők, 19431. 125p. NN AsWN GeLU

3118. Pernambucói éjszaka. Regény. Budapest: Új Idők, 19431. 222p. [1944] GeLU GyGNSU

3119. Olivér és az emberi világ. Regény. Budapest: Athenaeum, 19451. 216p. GeLU

3120. Északi szél. Regény. Budapest: Révai, 19471 [1946?]. 260p. [19632] NN NNC OCI AsWN GeLBM GyGNSU

3121. Élők és holtak. Regény. Budapest: Révai, 19481. 337p. [I9582] DLC IC NN NNC OCl GeLBM GyGNSU

3122. A nagy csata. Színmű egy felvonásban, három képben. Budapest: Művelt Nép, 19531. 70p. GeLBM

3123. Por és hamu. Korrajz és vallomás. Budapest: Magvető, 19551 [1956?].581p. [19662] IC MH MnU GeLBM GyBH

3124. Vándorlások könyve. Példázat és kaland. [Úti élmények] Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 19561. 334p. GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

3125. Bolond história. Kisregény. Budapest: Magvető, 19571. 147p. DLCNN GyGNSU

3126. Könnyű múzsa. [A költő és a valóság, Olivér és az emberi világ] Kétvidám regény. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1957. 343p. DLC MH NN GyBDS GyGNSU

3127. Ősök és utódok. Krónika. Budapest: Magvető, 19571. 294p. DLC MHNN FiHI GeLBM GeLU GyBDS GyGNSU

3128. Ebből egy szó sem igaz. Arckép és történet. [Kisregény] Budapest:Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 19581. 152p. MiD NNC GeLU GyGNSU

3129. Pernambucói éjszaka. [Pernambucói éjszaka, Nem is olyan rettenetes (1st), Agrella emléke (1st)] Három kisregény. Budapest: Magvető, 1958. 231p. NNC GyBDS

3130. Afrikai románc. Történetek. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 19601. 339p. NN NNC AsWN GyBDS GyGNSU

3131. Őserdő. [1st?] Vész és kaland. Életrajz és regény. Budapest: Magvető, 1960. 367p. InU NN NNC FiHI GeCU GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

3132. Az atyai ház. ["Vén Európa" Hotel (1st?), Az atyai ház, Kard és kocka (1st?)] Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1961. 290p. NNC GeCU GyBDS GyGNSU

3133. Jordán Elemér első hete a túlvilágon. [Elbeszélések] Budapest: Magvető, 19621. 323p. NN AsWN FiHI GeCU GeLBM GyGNSU

3134. Akár tetszik, akár nem . . . Színművek. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1963. 374p. [C]FiHI GyBDS GyGNSU

3135. Az idegen. [Kisregény és elbeszélések] Budapest: Magvető, 19631. 237p. [C] NNC AsWN GeLBM GyGNSU

3136. Bolhacirkusz. Mese habbal. Regények. Budapest: Magvető, 1964. 500p. [C] MH MnU NNC


3137. Bóka László. "Remenyik Zsigmond új könyvei," Szép Szó, IV, no. 1 (1937), 280-281.

Sees the merger of his art and his view of a "wretched world" in his works as leading to depictions of the ills of his society (Nagytakarítás, 1936?) and also to acceptance of his own share of guilt for existing conditions (Bűntudat, 1937). MnU GeLBM

3138. Schöpflin Aladár. "Remenyik Zsigmond: Az atyai ház," Magyar Csillag, III (1943), 440-443.

A review maintaining that the substance could have been given better expression in a novel and that the play lacks the diction of drama. MnU NNC AsWN [FiHI] FiHU [GyBH]


Born April 9, 1855 in Vitkóc; died July 11, 1889 in Budapest. Poet, essayist. Illegitimate child of Slovak maid and Hungarian aristocrat. Attended Catholic gymnasium in Pozsony in 1873. Father's death left family in poor financial circumstances. Tried unsuccessfully to meet schooling expenses by tutoring. Taught himself French and read German poetry and philosophy enthusiastically. His study of Berzsenyi, some translations, and poems appeared in Erdély in 1873. Moved to Budapest in 1874 to make poetry known. Obtained position in publishing office of Figyelő but quarreled with editors and went to Denta in fall 1875, where he fell in love with Emma Bakálovich, who inspired his best love poems. Love unrequited; moved to Budapest in fall 1877, where inability to earn living by writing made him dependent on friends. In 1878 became member of Petőfi-Társaság and editor on staff of Hon. Dismissed from Hon by Mór Jókai (q.v.) in 1882, when it merged with Ellenőr to become Nemzet. Poor critical reception given first edition of poems (1883). Left Budapest and edited Aradi Hírlap in Arad (1884) and Pannonia in Kassa (1885). Returned to Budapest in December 1885, but circumstances failed to improve. Assumed responsibility for literary and theater section in Pesti Hírlap in 1887. Began close friendship with Mari Jászai in 1888. Sent by friends to shores of Adriatic to seek cure for tuberculosis. Nomination for membership in Kisfaludy-Társaság by Lajos Tolnai (q.v.) was rejected. Died in medical division of University of Budapest. ¶ First to give genuine expression to urbane spirit in Hungarian poetry, in deliberate opposition to peasant tradition in Hungarian literature. His subject matter that of everyday situations and occurrences and social outcasts. Strong sense of form and depth of emotion. Poems characterized by brooding over past, complaints about deceptions of life, and painful resignation. His lyric poems have pessimistic tone. Much influenced by Schopenhauer. ¶ Some of his poems have been translated into Bulgarian, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Rumanian, Russian, Slovakian, and Swedish.

FIRST EDITIONS: Ifjúságom, 1874-1883; Első szerelem, Emma, Perdita, Változatok. [Versek] Budapest: Révai Testvérek, 1883. 163p. - Apai örökség. [Kisregény] Budapest: Morvay és Mérei, 1884. 103p. - Edelény, a holtig hű szerető. Igaz história három énekben. Budapest, 1884. 32p. [From catalogue of National Széchényi Library] - Kleist Henrik: Heilbronni Katica. Fordítás. Budapest, 1887. 118p. [From catalogue of National Széchényi Library] - Magány. Újabb költemények. Kiadta a Kisfaludy Társaság. Budapest: Révai Testvérek, 1889. 200p. - Margit szerencséje. Regény. Győr: Gross Testvérek, 1889. 133p. - Ibsen Henrik: Nóra. Színmű 3 felvonásban. Fordítás. Győr, 1892. 119p. [From catalogue of National Széchényi Library] - Összes költeményei. Rendezte és életrajzzal ellátta Koroda Pál. I-II. kötet. Budapest: Athenaeum, 1895. [C] - See also no. 3140.


See also nos. 2166 and 3143.

3139. Összes költeményei. Sajtó alá rendezte és bevezetéssel ellátta Koroda Pál. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 1902. 416p. [C] (19113) DLC MH MnU NN NNC OCI AsWU FiHI GeLU GyBH

3140. Prózai dolgozatai. Sajtó alá rendezte a Vörösmarty-gimnázium Önképzőkörének közreműködésével Horváth Imre. Budapest: Királyi Magyar Egyetemi Nyomda, 19401. 106p. [C] GeLBM

3141. Összegyűjtött művei. Sajtó alá rendezte Paku Imre. [The most complete edition] Budapest: Athenaeum, 1944. 574p. [B] MnU NNC

3142. Apai örökség. Regény. Bevezette Komlós Aladár. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 19555. 131p. [C] DLC MH GeLBM


See nos. 2966 and 3145.


3143. Koroda Pál. "Reviczky Gyula," Kortársak nagy írókról. Második sorozat. Aválogatás és a jegyzetek Lukácsy Sándor munkája. Budapest: Művelt Nép, 1956; 478p. Pp. 192-206. [Parts published as "Epilogue" to Reviczky Gyula összes költeményei. Rendezte és életrajzzal ellátta Koroda Pál. I-II kötet. Budapest: Athenaeum, 1895. II, i-xxxvi]

Details of his family, life, character, expressions of literary aspirations, and literary development. Based on personal recollections. Ranges over his whole life. DLC MnU NNC FiHU GyBDS

3144. Paulovics István. Reviczky Gyula. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 1910. 239p.

A biography, and a second part concerned with Reviczky the short story writer, aesthetician, and poet. MH GeLBM GyBH

3145. Komlós Aladár. Reviczky Gyula. Budapest: Művelt Nép, 1955. 163p.

Detailed examination of his writings. Bibliography of his works, pp. 151-163. DLC MH MnU NN NNC AsWN GeLBM GyBDS GyBH GyGNSU


See also nos. 275, 1674, 2947, 3969, and 4624.

3146. Móricz Zsigmond. "Reviczky Gyula," Irodalomról, művészetről. 1899-1942. Sajtó alá rendezte Szabó Ferenc. I-II. kötet. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1959. I, 12-57. [Appeared in Uránia, III (June-August, 1902), 170-193]

Purpose: to make his poetry more understandable by delineating his psychology and the development of his spirit. Examinations of his thought and feeling in various stages of his development. DLC MH MnU NBNNC AsWN AsWU FiHI GeCU GyBDS

3147. Steiner Izidor. Reviczky költészete. Nagyvárad: Rákos Vilmos, 1905. 34p.

The form and substance of his love poems, his ability to develop his thought and feeling with the structure of his lyrics, the character of his "gondolati" lyrics and the influence of Schopenhauer on his thought, the effect of other writers on his works, his inability to use materials from nature, and evaluations of his narrative poems and his language and poetic forms.

3148. Vende Margit. Reviczky Gyula pesszimizmusa. Irodalomtörténeti tanulmány. Budapest: Minerva, 1906. 97p.

The nature and causes of his pessimism and the influences of 19th-century European thought upon it. Chapter on Schopenhauer. Bibliographical footnotes.

3149. Horváth János. "Újabb költészetünk világnézeti válsága," Tanulmányok. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1956; 638p. Pp. 466-481. [Appeared in Irodalomtörténet, XXIII (1934), 1-9]

Separate treatment of Reviczky's and Komjáthy's world views, differing from the classical Hungarian literary outlook during the last decades of the 19th century. DLC MH MnU NNC GeLBM GyBDS GyBH GyGGaU GyGNSU

3150. Vajthó László. Reviczky Gyula. Budapest: Királyi Magyar Egyetemi Nyomda, 1939. 164p.

Separate studies of his views of humor, the influence of Schopenhauer on his thought, the influence of János Arany on his creativity, the characteristics of his works, and his significance in Hungarian literature. Bibliographical footnotes. MH MnU NN NNC AsWN GeLBM GyBH GyGGaU GyGNSU

3151. Vas István. "Reviczky emlékezete," Évek és művek. Kritikák és tanulmányok, 1934-1956. Budapest: Magvető, 1958; 478p. Pp. 48-58. [Appeared in Nyugat, XXXII (July, 1939), 34-38]

The author reviews the repercussions of Reviczky's critical attention and readership, establishes his significance as a poet who wrote in the tradition of the troubadors, and characterizes his attitude toward life. Likened to Gyula Krúdy's poet-hero, Kázmér Rezeda. DLC MnU FiHI GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

3152. Rónay György. "Reviczky Gyula: Apai örökség (1884)," A regény és az élet. Bevezetés a 19-20. századi magyar regényirodalomba. Budapest: Káldor György, 1947; 376p. Pp. 131-141.

Depicts the hero of the novel as revealing much about Reviczky himself, and discusses Reviczky's manifesting the pessimism then prevalent in Europe. NN GeLBM GyBDS

3153. Harsányi Zoltán. "Reviczky arcképéhez. (A költő világképe. Kritikai-esztétikai munkássága)," Irodalomtörténet, XLII (1954), 428-469.

Purpose: to construct a correct portrait of his world outlook and his critical and aesthetic concepts, and a view of the younger generation of writers of the period. Careful examination of his thought, attention to the "capitalistic" elements of his times. Viewed as a pioneer of later developments in Hungarian literature. Bibliographical footnotes. CU DLC MH MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GyBDS GyBH GyGNSU

3154. Komlós Aladár. "Reviczky Gyula," Tegnap és ma. Irodalmi tanulmányok. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1956; 359p. Pp. 169-196. [Appeared as part of introduction, "A századvég költői," to Kiss József, Reviczky Gyula, Komjáthy Jenő válogatott művei, pp. 36-60; see no. 2166]

Outlines his life and literary development; his role in the changing tastes of his times; and the characteristics of his works, especially his lyric poems. DLC MH MnU NNC AsWN GeLBM GeOB

3155. Szalay Károly. "Reviczky humorelmélete," Irodalomtörténet, XLIII (1955), 163-177.

Surveys the concepts of humor in Hungary prior to him, and discusses the effect of János Arany on him. Examines Reviczky's studies of humor and his views of historical, social, and geographical conditions in the development of humor. Establishes his concepts of humor and finds an affirmation of the comic and realistic and the belief that the essence of humor lies in a mutual feeling with the downtrodden and the people. Closes with a discussion of his pessimism, humor in his world outlook, and the influences on and importance of his speculations in Hungarian literature. [CU] DLC MH MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GyBDS GyBH

3156. Nacsády József. "Reviczky és a Szegedi Napló," Irodalomtörténet, XLVIII(1960), 198-200.

Records five titles of his writings that appeared in the Szegedi Napló, but not in Komlós's bibliography (see no. 3145): "A magyar nők lyrája," August 30, 1878; "Jogosult-e a kozmopolita költészet?" November 30, 1878; "Apró dalok ('Webert, Chopint játszod betéve' and 'Ha mosolygasz, mennybe nézek')," May 10, 1881; "Perdita ('Lelkedbe ádáz végzeted,' 'Hiába gyújt szemed sugára,' 'Egyedül állasz,' 'Ez az átkod')," June 11, 1881; "A zugprókátor," January 4, 1882; "A jellemről," January 4, 1882; "Emlékezzünk a régiekről," February 12, 1882; and "Alkotás és rombolás," October 18, 1883. Comments on each to point up the importance of the work to an understanding of the writer, and outlines his relations with the newspaper. Bibliographical footnotes. CU DLC MH MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GeLU GyBDS GyBH


Born 1573(?) in Alsósztregova; died December 9-11, 1631 in Divény. Poet, diplomat. Descendant of Evangelical aristocratic family. Precocity led to unbroken friendship with the much older Bálint Balassi (q.v.), who believed Rimay's poetry would be superior to his own. Attended universities in Graz and Vienna and had basic and wide-ranging knowledge. Corresponded with Justus Lipsius; was a member of the court of István Báthory about 1587 in Transylvania, that of Zsigmond Báthory in 1594. In diplomatic service of István Bocskay beginning in 1605, of Gábor Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania, in 1609, and of King Mátyás II for a time. Envoy to Turkey in 1608, to Pasha in Budapest in 1609, and to Turkey again in 1619. Married Orsolya Ághy when he was 43. Settled on estate in Alsósztregova in 1620 and corresponded with leading public figures of the day, including György Rákóczi and Péter Pázmány (q.v.). His home became a center of intellectual life, and he was looked upon as the chief figure in Hungarian literature. Participated in Hungarian-Turkish peace discussions in 1627 at Szőny. ¶ Next to Bálint Balassi, he is the best lyric poet of the 17th century in Hungary. His poems are considered the classic example of late Renaissance and euphuistic style in the history of Hungarian poetry. He was prolific, but a significant number of his poems are lost; a large number of his love poems have been mistakenly ascribed to Balassi. ¶ Some of his poems have been translated into French and German.

FIRST EDITIONS: Generosi ac Magnifici Domini Valentini Balassa de Gyarmath . . . Az Nagysagos Gyarmati Balassa Balintnac Esztergam ala valo készületi. Bártfa, 1598 előtt [1595?]. [From Szinnyei, XI, 1005] - Az Néhai tekintetes és Nagos vitéz Úrnak, Gyarmati Balasi Bálintnak s amaz jó emlekezetű Istenben bóldogul ki-múlt Néhai Nemzetes Rimai Jánosnak az haza fiánek, és a Magyar Nyelvnek két ékességének Istenes Éneki. Mellyet . . . egynéhány új énekekkel és Imádságokkal ki bocsátott . . . Bártfa, ca.1632-1635. [From Szinnyei, XI, 1005-1006] - See also no. 3157.


See also nos. 383 and 389.

3157. Államiratai és levelezése. Szerkesztette Ipolyi Arnold, a bevezetőt Szilágyi Sándor írta. Budapest: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, 18871. 422p. [B] AsWN GeLBM GyBH

3158. Munkái. A Radvánszky- és a Sajókazai-codexek szövege szerint kiadja báró Radvánszky Béla. [Includes some writings by Gáspár Madách and others by error] Balassa és Rimay "Istenes énekei"-nek bibliographiája. Összeállította Dézsi Lajos (see no. 397). Budapest: Akadémia, 1904. 380, 113p. [B] DLC MH AsWN GeLBM GeLU GyBH GyGNSU

3159. Összes művei. Összeállította Eckhardt Sándor. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1955. 469p. [A] DLC NN NNC FiHU GeLBM GeLU GyBH GyGNSU


See also nos. 397 and 3162.

3160. Eckhardt Sándor. "Bibliográfia és szöveghagyomány," Rimay János összes művei. Összeállította Eckhardt Sándor. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1955; 469p. Pp. 161-172.

In four parts: (1) location and description of manuscripts, (2) authentication of lost works, (3) bibliographical data and comments on published editions, and (4) studies about him using only Ferenczi's biography (see no. 3162) and the footnotes of the complete edition as reference for sources. DLC NN NNC FiHU GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU


3161. Radvánszky Béla. "Balassa és Rimay barátsága," Budapesti Szemle, CXIX, no. 331 (1904), 39-63. [Also a reprint]

The relations between Balassa and Rimay, and Rimay's activities in preparing his "master's" works for publication. Bibliographical footnotes. CtY DLC NN AsWN GeLBM GyBH

3162. Ferenczi Zoltán. Rimay János. (1573-1631)Budapest: Magyar Történelmi Társulat, 1911. 264p.

Considerable attention to his times, his relations with his contemporaries, and the characteristics of his works. Bibliography of his works and studies about him, pp. 161-172. NN AsWN GeCU GyBH GyGNSU


See also nos. 413 and 414.

3163. Váczy János. "Rimay János," Egyetemes Philologiai Közlöny, XXIX (1905), 737-752.

The thought, characteristics, and merits of his songs. Maintains that the style of his prose does not add to his value as a writer but that some of his poetry is the last representation of 16th-century verse and some preparation for that of the 17th century - his flower, patriotic, and martial songs being in the first category, and his didactic and religious songs in the second. IU MnU OClW OCU AsWN FiHU GyBH

3164. Klaniczay Tibor. "Amagyar későreneszánsz problémái (stoicizmus és manierizmus)," Reneszánsz és barokk. Tanulmányok a régi magyar irodalomról. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1961; 595p. Pp. 303-339. [A paper read in Wittenberg on July 5, 1959; appeared in Irodalomtörténet, XLVIII (1960), 41-61]

A study of stoicism and mannerism in the late Hungarian renaissance as preparation for the baroque wherein considerable attention is given to Rimay's poetry. [Several articles in the cited collection touch upon Rimay to varying degrees of depth] DLC MnU NN NNC AsWN GeLBM GeLU GyBDS GyBH GyGNSU


Born October 8, 1913 in Budapest. Poet, novelist, critic, translator. Name also spelled Rónai. Completed gymnasium studies in Gödöllő. Obtained teaching certificate in Hungarian and French from University of Budapest. Writings most frequently published first in Nyugat, Magyar Csillag, Vigilia, and Ezüstkor, and then in Magyarok, Kortárs, Élet és Irodalom, and Nagyvilág. Literary adviser to Révai Brothers' Literary Institute Corporation 1937-1947. Edited Ezüstkor in 1943 and Vigilia 1950-1960. Now critic on staff of Vigilia. ¶ Member of the so-called third generation of Nyugat School. His poems and prose represent Catholic views of modern writers. Poems strongly psychological and intellectual. Criticisms and literary studies important. Translated numerous authors, among them Michelangelo, Apollinaire, Claudel, Jammes, La Fontaine, Ronsard, Novalis, Hölderlin, Rilke, Aragon, France, Gauguin, Goethe, F. Kafka, Malraux, Montesquieu, Pagnol, Sartre, Simenon, Stendhal, Supervielle, Turgenev, and Virginia Woolf ¶ Some of his poems have been translated into German and Italian.


See also no. 2911 for editorial work. Material in edition: nos. 835 and 3363. Annotated works: nos. 86, 351, 488, 667, 839, 1364, 1427, 1496, 1538, 1679, 1701, 1750, 1841, 1963, 2164, 2705, 2840, 3042, 3058, 3152, 3206, 3259, 3262, 3332, 3380, 4030, 4180, 4350, 4363, 4379, 4408, 4447, 4472, 4480, 4481, 4487, and 4489.

3165. A tulipánok elhervadtak. Versek. Budapest: Genius-Lantos, 19311. 120p.

3166. Híd. Versek. Budapest: Merkantil, 19321. 32p.

3167. Katolikus verses zsoltárfordítások a XIX. században. [Tanulmány] Kecskemét: Első Kecskeméti Hírlapkiadó, 19341. 23p.

3168. Szűzek koszorúja. [Tanulmány] Budapest: Pázmány Irodalmi Társaság, 19361. 65p. GyBH

3169. Keresztút. [Regény] Budapest: Révai, 19371. 270p. IC OCl GyBH

3170. Modern francia líra. Fordítások. Budapest, 1939. [From Várkonyi, p. 550] (A reprint?)

3171. Lázadó angyal. Regény. Budapest: Révai, 19401. 220p. OCl AsWN

3172. Fák és gyümölcsök. Regény. I-II. kötet. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 19411. AsWN

3173. Stílus és lélek. Tanulmány. Budapest, 1941. [From Várkonyi, p. 550] (A reprint ?)

3174. Cirkusz. Regény. Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 19421. 164p.

3175. Te mondj el engem. Versek. Budapest: Révai, 19421. 82p. AsWN GyBH

3176. Rimbaud versek. Műfordítás. Budapest, 19441. [From Magyar irodalmi lexikon, II, 628]

3177. Pázmány ébresztése. Összeállította, a bevezetőt és a kísérő szöveget írta Rónay György. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19461. 97p.

3178. Az alkony éve. [Regény] Budapest: Studio, 19471. 381p. GeLBM

3179. Aregény és az élet. Bevezetés a 19-20. századi magyar regényirodalomba. Budapest: Káldor György, 19471. 376p. NN GeLBM GyBDS

3180. Új francia költők. Versfordítások. [Bevezető tanulmánnyal] Budapest: Révai, 19471. 259p.

3181. A francia reneszánsz költészete. Tanulmány és műfordítások. Budapest: Magvető, 19561. 367p. DLC GyBDS

3182. A nábob halála. [Regény] Budapest: Magvető, 19571. 264p. GyBDS

3183. Nyár. Versek, 1938-1956. Budapest: Magvető, 19571. 205p. GyGNSU

3184. Petőfi és Ady között. Az újabb magyar irodalom életrajza. (1849-1899) Budapest: Magvető, 19581. 249p. DLC MH MnU GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

3185. Az ember boldogsága. [Elbeszélések] Harmat utca 8. Kisregény. Budapest: Magvető, 19591. 306p. NNC GeCU GyBDS GyGNSU

3186. Michelangelo versei. Fordítás. Bevezető tanulmánnyal. Budapest, 19591. [From Magyar irodalmi lexikon, II, 628]

3187. Képek és képzelgések. [Regény; antecedent appeared as Anábob halála]Budapest: Magvető, 19601. 313p. DLC GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

3188. Fekete rózsa. Versek. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 19611. 176p. NN GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

3189. Esti gyors. Regény. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 19631. 345p. MH GyBDS GyGNSU

3190. A klasszicizmus. Abevezető tanulmányt írta, a szövegeket válogatta és fordította Rónay György. Budapest: Gondolat, 19631. 297p. FiHI GyBDS

3191. A város és a délibáb. Versek. Budapest: Magvető, 19641. 197p. DLC MnU GyBDS GyGNSU

3192. A szeretet bilincsei. Elbeszélések. Születésnap. Színjáték. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 19651. 321p. CLU MnU NNC GeLBM GyBDS GyBH GyGNSU


See no. 3262.


3193. Lovass Gyula. "Rónay György: Fák és gyümölcsök," Sorsunk, II (1942), 155-166.

A review calling the work a novel of a family in an untraditional sense, stating that it seeks what lies behind events - the soul's inner meaning and constancy, moods, and memories - and that it addresses itself to theworth of life and to the question of happiness. Maintains that its special quality lies in its leading to a new closed and uncertain world of impulses, desires and memories, that this kind of portrayal is new in Hungarian prose literature, and that the scope and poetic quality of the undertaking alone make the work a significant experiment. MH MnU GyBH

3194. Szerb Antal. "Rónay György: Fák és gyümölcsök," Magyar Csillag, II (February 1, 1942), 116-117.

The novel evaluated for the impact of its atmosphere and the simultaneous occurrence of events at several time levels and for its attempt to unravel the enigmatical character of life and circumstances. Contends it expresses a feeling for life closely resembling that of the impressionists, although more hopefully and metaphysically, and that its antecedents lie in the novels of Virginia Woolf in its manifestations of the dissolution of reality and of transcendentalism. MnU NNC AsWN [FiHI] {FiHU] [GyBH] GyGNSU

3195. Vas István. "Rónay György: Te mondj el engem," Évek és művek. Kritikák és tanulmányok, 1934-1956. Budapest: Magvető, 1958; 478p. Pp. 71-73. [Appeared in Magyar Csillag, II (November 1, 1942), 295-296]

A review maintaining that among the younger poets he came the closest to French lyric poetry, with Apollinaire influencing his early period and Valéry's Ars poetica freeing his true nature. His poetry is characterized as the lyric of thought and as "an enchanting abstraction which can give an ethereal sweep to the most realistic themes." The author suggests he "is essentially a romantic poet as is shown by the innermost melody of his lyric poetry behind the disciplined forms and their aiming at coldness," that he best achieves his potential when he is able to direct the world of romantic experience completely into the world of classical form, and that he uses the forms of Western Europe and Greece with certainty. DLCMnU FiHI GeLBM GyBDS GyGNSU

3196. Rába György. "Aregény és az élet. Rónay György tanulmánya," Újhold, II (1947), 216-218.

The work considered as significant as Antal Szerb's Hétköznapok és csodák but showing the formulation of the new aesthetics of a different period. The author states that the principle of "playfulness" is active in the center of Szerb's work, whereas in Rónay's the certainty of the conscience of realism has arrived, that Rónay sees the mission of the novel as placing a cross section of Hungarian society before the reader, and that he evaluates the material in the light of Pál Gyulai's classical spirit. [DLC] MH

3197. Sík Sándor. "Rónay György," Vigilia, XXII (1957), 365-369.

An analysis of Nyár, representing a selection of poems written between 1938 and 1956. Maintains that the lyrics show the ripening of his neoclassicism, that they belong to the best Hungarian descriptive poetry, that surrealism often appears in his Ars poetica. Sík contends that Rónay can be linked with Dániel Berzsenyi and Paul Valéry, that he is drawn to realism as well as classicism, and that his strongest inspiration is "the rapturous experience with nature." NN NNC

3198. Béládi Miklós. "Fekete rózsa. Rónay György versei," Élet és Irodalom, V (December 16, 1961), 6.

A review stating that whereas his earlier poetry was characterized by a post-impressionism in which a propensity for vision also became manifest, the lyric poems in this new edition are more richly concerned with the real world, though he remains the poet of recollections, dreams, and spectacles of nature. This edition shows that his poetry has reached the phase of emotional self-expression more completely than his earlier work, moving nearer to the immediate reality of life, because of his increasing. dissatisfaction with a meditative closed and private artistry. DLC DS MH GyBDS GyBH

3199. Bohuniczky Szefi. "Rónay György: Esti gyors," Jelenkor, VI (1963), 775-777.

Outlines Rónay's career as a novelist beginning with his Fák és gyümölcsök, and states that he describes the condition of individuals who waste away in their obstinate clinging to hereditary modes of life and arrive on "the tragic shoals of their inner world." In Esti gyors he analyzes the inner happenings of a psychological turning point, and though it is the story of a hero rising from the mire of the war, the revelation through the psychological truth extends to the eternal man. CU DLC InNd NN GeLBM GyBH


Born January 22, 1899 in Budapest; died March 8, 1945 in Balf. Poet, novelist. Descendant of lower middle-class family. Completed schooling in Vác and Budapest. Poems first appeared in 1917 in Nyugat, and he became one of most capable pupils of Mihály Babits (q.v.) and formed friendships with Lőrinc Szabó and László Németh (qq.v.). Studied law at University of Budapest for six months in 1918; then became student at Zeneakadémia for short time in 1919, after which he studied philosophy. Became literary adviser to Athenaeum Publishing House in 1919. Helped to edit Pandora in 1927. Married Márta Molnár, daughter of Ferenc Molnár (q.v.}, in 1933. In 1930's turned attention increasingly to social problems, especially those of peasants. Edited Válasz 1935-1938 and founded Magyarország Felfedezése series in 1936, which consisted of important sociographic studies by Ferenc Erdei, Géza Féja, and Zoltán Szabó. One of the leaders of March Front in 1937. Prosecuted in 1938 for publishing summons of March Front in Válasz. Worked for Kelet Népe for a time in 1939 and then increasingly withdrew from public activity. Spent early months of 1944 in Mártonhegy Sanitorium and then served in forced labor camp. Transported by Germans to Western Hungary, where he died of starvation. ¶ Important member of the socalled second generation of Nyugat lyric poets and of populist movement. His early poems were affected by Nyugat standards and Catholic ideals. Poems romantic in tone and strong in use of poetic techniques. Used free verse frequently. Later poems are concerned with social problems and become more realistic in tone and tighter in form. Translated some works of Barbusse, Goethe, Julien Green, Thomas Mann, and Mauriac. ¶ Some of his poems have been translated into English, French, German, Italian, Polish, and Rumanian.

FIRST EDITIONS: Angyalok harca. Versek. Budapest: Athenaeum, 1926. 104p. - Váltott lélekkel. Versek. Budapest: Athenaeum, 1927. 64p. - Mint oldott kéve. Történelmi regény. I-III. kötet. Budapest: Pantheon, 1931. - Szilveszter. [Elbeszélések] Debrecen: Nagy Károly és Társai, 1934. 60p. - Thomas Mann: József és testvérei. Regényciklus. [Fordítás] Budapest, 1934. [From Magyar irodalmi lexikon, III, 34] - Viola. [Regény] Budapest: Athenaeum, 1935. 223p. - Goethe: Faust. I.rész. [Fordítás] Budapest, 1937. [From Magyar irodalmi lexikon, III, 34] - Dózsa. Történelmi dráma. Budapest: Kelet Népe, 1939. 56p. - Higgy a csodában. Versek. Budapest: Athenaeum, 1941. 64p.


See also nos. 1484, 2861, and 4025 for annotated works.

3200. Összes verse és kisebb műfordításai. Budapest: Sarló, 1947. 304p. [C] DLC MnU NN FiHU GeLBM

3201. Dózsa. Történelmi dráma. Budapest: Fehér Holló, 19482. 48p. [C] GeLBM

3202. Válogatott versei. Válogatta és a bevezető tanulmányt írta Illyés Gyula. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1954. 135p. [C] MnU NNC GeLU

3203. Mint oldott kéve. [Történelmi regény] Budapest: Zrínyi Kiadó, 19572. 543p. [C] DLC IC NN NNC OCl AsWN GeLBM GyBDS GyBH GyGNSU

3204. Válogatott versei. Válogatta és bevezette Kalász Márton, jegyzetekkel ellátta Szíjgyártó László. Budapest: Móra, 1959. 121p. [C] DLC NN NNC GyBDS GyBH GyGNSU


3205. Lengyel Balázs. "Sárközi György," Magyarok, I (1945), 90-91.

Contends that Sárközi's literary intentions were not consistent with his emotions, with the result that once he dedicated himself to the service of his people and turned to the translations of Thomas Mann, his later verses never achieved or developed the poetical qualities evident in his first book of poems, Angyalok harca. MnU NNC

3206. Rónay György. "A lírikus Sárközi György," Vigilia, XII (1947), 371-375.

On the occasion of the publication of his complete poems and shorter translations (1947). Surveys his poetic course and finds that the freshness in his first poems fades as his verses are affected by his participation in the people's movement in the 1930's and his attempting a voice that could never belong to him. Praises him for the nobility of his sacrifice, but states that he denied himself excessively to remain the poet with his own voice and world that had appeared in the first volume. DLC NN NNC

3207. Sarkadi Imre. "Sárközi György költészete. Sárközi György összes verse (1947)," Magyarok, III (1947), 717-719.

Discusses his concepts of revolution against the injustices of his times, and sees him as a fighter for but not a poet of the "poor peasant" and as the poet of the great problems of man. [CSt-H] MnU [NN] [NNC]

3208. Szabó Lőrinc. "Sárközi György, a költő," Válasz, VII (September, 1947), 256-265.

On the occasion of the publication of his complete poetical works and shorter translations (1947). Traces the characteristics of his poetry through three major stages, and finds that he finally creates an admirable simplicity of style and a strong belief in reality, both of which find their roots in his earlier poems. [CSt-H] DLC [NNC] [FiHI] GeLU [GeOB]

3209. Szigeti József. "Magyar líra 1947-ben," Irodalmi tanulmányok. Budapest: Európa, 1959; 241p. Pp. 181-221. [Appeared in Forum, II (October, 1947), 737-762]

His poetry and development are examined as an expression of the "isolated I," which is viewed as the basic flaw of contemporary Hungarian poetry. Others measured against this standard: Gyula Illyés, Lőrinc Szabó, István Vas, Sándor Weöres. DLC NN NNC GyBDS GyBH GyGNSU

3210. Illyés Gyula. "Sárközi György," Csillag, VIII (1954), 2128-2138.

His literary development, the characteristics of his poems, and some attention to his family background and his life [DLC] MnU [NN] NNC [GeLBM] GyBH [GyGGaU]

3211. Lator László. "Sárközi György Faust-fordítása," Irodalomtörténet, XLIII (1955), 235-241.

A review of the translation examining its poetic qualities, comparing it with the original, and stating that though it has shortcomings, it is better than previous Hungarian translations, mainly in its poetic character. [CU] DLC MH MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GyBDS GyBH

3212. Rába György. "Sárközi Györgyről," Irodalomtörténet, XLV (1957), 45-49.

His poetic development in two periods with examination of poems from each, the first viewed as "many-colored" and the second as "white-black" in its materials. CU DLC MH MnU NN NNC AsWU GeLBM GeLU GyBDS GyBH

3213. Szabó Zoltán. "Sárközi György," Új Látóhatár, II (1959), 417-421.

An estimate of his creativity and contributions to Hungary as viewed fifteen years after his death: his dedication to the welfare of the peasant and worker, his place in his generation and the characteristics of his poetry, and his importance to the periodical Válasz and the series Magyarország Felfedezése, both vital to the stirrings of the people's movement of the 1930's. DLC MH [NN] NNC OCl FiHU GeLBM GyGGaU GyGNSU


Born January 20, 1889 in Budapest; died September 28, 1963 in Budapest. Poet, translator, literary historian, religious writer. Completed schooling at Piarist gymnasium in Budapest. Entered Piarist Order in 1903. Obtained teaching certificate and doctorate in philosophy from Pázmány University in 1910. In 1910 taught briefly at Piarist gymnasium in Vác, afterwards at the Order's gymnasium in Budapest. Became a member of Kisfaludy-Társaság and Petőfi-Társaság in 1923. Also a member of Szent István Akadémia. Was professor of modern Hungarian literature at University of Szeged 1930-1944. Opposed nationalism and fascism. Some of his plays were performed. Awarded Vojnits Medal by Hungarian Academy of Sciences for István király in 1938. President of Országos Köznevelési Tanács 1946-1947. Edited Vigilia from 1946 until his death. Awarded Kossuth Prize in 1948. Became head of Piarist Order in Hungary in 1948. ¶ One of the most important religious lyric poets in 20th-century Hungarian literature. Great influence on writers of Catholic literature. His poems are strongly humanistic and concerned with social problems. Seek to encourage humility, brotherhood, love, morality, and to reassure readers about the human state. Also an important literary historian and translator. His study of aesthetics still considered indispensable. ¶ Some of his writings have been translated into English, French, and German.


See also nos. 2910, 3848, and 3850 for editorial works. Material in edition: no. 1633. Annotated works: nos. 72, 276, 1133, 1617, 2914, 3197, and 4291.

3214. Mindszenty Gedeon élete és költészete. Irodalmi tanulmány. Budapest: Stephaneum, 19101. 109p. NNC FiHU GeLBM

3215. Szembe a nappal. Versek. Budapest: Az Élet, 19101. 160p. GeLU GyBH

3216. A belülvalók mécse. Versek. Budapest: Az Élet, 19121. 124p.

3217. Imádságoskönyv a katholikus tanulóifjúság számára. Budapest, 19131. [From Pintér, VIII, 960]

3218. Alexius. Misztérium öt felvonásban. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19161. 222p. [19472]

3219. Ébredés. Dráma három felvonásban. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19161. 50p. AsWIN

3220. Költeményei. [Összefoglaló kötet] Budapest: Az Élet, 1916. 351p. GeLBM GyBH

3221. Salamon király gyűrűje. Misztérium. Győr: Családi Könyvtár, 19161. 28p.

3222. Maradék magyarok! Versek. [Hazafias líra] Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19191. 60p.

3223. Hét szép história. [Elbeszélések] Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19211. 157p. MnU

3224. Magyar cserkészvezetők könyve. Budapest, 19221. [From Pintér, VIII, 960]

3225. A magyar irodalom rövid ismertetése. Összeállította Sík Sándor. Budapest: Németh József, 19231. 163p.

3226. Zrínyi. Magyar tragédia. Budapest: Franklin, 19231. 168p. NNC GeLBM GyBH

3227. Zsoltáros könyv. Budapest, 19231. [From Pintér, VIII, 960]

3228. Csend. Versek. Budapest: Pallas, 19241 [1923?]. 96p. GeLBM

3229. Kölcsey Ferenc, az ember, a gondolkodó, az író. Kölcsey-breviárum. Összeállította Sík Sándor. Budapest: Magyar Középiskolai Tanárak Nemzeti Szövetsége, 19241. 110p. GyBH

3230. S. Onofrio. [Költemény] Budapest: Stephenaeum, 19261. 8p.

3231. Sarlósboldogasszony. Versek. Berlin: Ludwig Voggenreiter, 19281. 102p. GyBH

3232. A montecasalei erdő. Drámai kép. Budapest: Stephaneum, 19291. 15p.

3233. A boldog ember inge. [Mese] Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19301. 284p. NN GeLU

3234. A cserkészet. [Tanulmány] Budapest: Magyar Szemle Társaság, 19301. 79p. DLC NN GyBH

3235. Fekete kenyér. [Verses önéletrajz] Budapest: Dom, 19311. 204p.

3236. Adventi misztérium. Szavalókórusra. Győr: Győregyházmegyei Alap, 19331. 12p.

3237. István király. Tragédia három felvonásban. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19341. 84p. OCl GeLU

3238. Advent. Oratorium szavalókórusra. [2., átdolgozott kiadás] Szeged: Szegedi Fiatalok, 1935. 54p. [19351] MnU NN GyBH

3239. Magányos virrasztó. Új versek. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19361. 126p. GeLU

3240. Szent magyarság. Hat rádióbeszéd az Árpád-házi szentekről. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19361. 74p.

3241. Dicsőség! Békesség! Imádságos könyv, egyszersmind kalauz a keresztény életre. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19401. 1149p.

3242. Az Isten fiatal! Versek. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19401. 124p. GeLU

3243. A realista regény a magyar irodalomban. [Egyetemi előadás] Szeged: n.p., 19401. 62p. [From catalogue of National Széchényi Library]

3244. A magyar dráma elmélete és története. Sík Sándor előadásai a szegedi egyetemen. 1941/42. I. félév. Szeged: Árpád, 19411. 82p. [From catalogue of National Széchényi Library]

3245. Összes versei. 1910-1940. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 1941. 480p.

3246. Zrínyi Miklós. [Tanulmány] Budapest: Franklin-Társulat, 19411. 177p. DLC MH MnU NNC AsWN GeLU GyBH GyGGaU GyGNSU

3247. Esztétika. [Rendszeres esztétika] I-III. kötet. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19431. [19462]

1. kötet: A szépség. 327p.

2. kötet: A mű és a művész. 429p.

3. kötet: A művészet. 401p.


3248. Fejezetek a versolvasás tudományából. [Tanulmány] Budapest: Stephaneum, 1943. 34p. [A reprint]

3249. Himnuszok könyve. A keresztény himnusz-költészet remekei latinul és magyarul. [Műfordítások] Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19431. 543p. MnU

3250. A magyar romantika kérdése. [Tanulmány] Budapest: Magyar Irodalomtörténeti Társaság, 19431. 21p.

3251. Győzöd-e még? Versek, 1939-1945. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19451. 126p. GeLU

3252. Tizenkét csillagú korona. Versek a Boldogságos Szűz Máriáról. Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19471. 40p.

3253. Őszi fecske. Versek. [Válogatott és új versek] Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 1959. 360p. DLC GeLBM GyBDS

3254. Áldás. Versek. [Posztumusz versei] Budapest: Szent István-Társulat, 19631. 214p.


3255. Ortutay Gyula. "Sík Sándor," Írók, népek, századok. Budapest: Magvető, 1960; 475p. Pp. 123-128. [Appeared as "Az első szegedi évek" in Vigilia, XXIV (February, 1959), 73-76]

Ortutay's recollections of Sík's years in Szeged and his friendship with him. DLC MB MnU NN NNC AsWN FiHI FiHU GeLBM GeLU GyBDS


See also no. 75.

3256. Kosztolányi Dezső. "Sík Sándor," Írók, festők, tudósok. Tanulmányok magyar kortársakról. Gyűjtötte, sajtó alá rendezte, az utószót és a jegyzeteket írta Réz Pál. I-II. kötet. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1958. I, 223-225. [Appeared in Élet, no. 50 (December 11, 1910), 746]

A review of the 1910 edition of his poems, Szembe a nappal,finding them to be individualistic, not in the beauty and well-formed quality of their verses but in their fire, fever, and total harmony, and calling him the rare voice that can add something of his own to the joy and happiness of life. DLC MH NjN NN NNC AsWN GeCU GyBH GyGNSU

3257. Szerb Antal. "Pázmány Péter: Sík Sándor könyve," Nyugat, XXXII (August, 1939), 114-115.

A review stating that the most outstanding characteristic of the study of Pázmány is its manysidedness and the thoroughness with which the subject is covered and that it has clearly been written, not only by a scholar but by an artist. MnU NN [NNC] [FiHU] GeLBM GyBH

3258. Semjén Gyula. "Sík Sándor a költő," Délvidéki Szemle, II (June, 1943), 248-254. [Also a reprint]

The characteristics of his poetry, particularly its thought, from his first volume, Szembe a nappal (1910), through 30 years of productivity: "the living belief, the balanced world outlook, the building of the human personality, the service to his nation" as giving his poetry its positive quality and linking it with the ideals of European humanism. AsWN GeLBM GyBH

3259. Rónay György. "Az 'Alexius'-tól a 'Tizenkét csillagú koroná'-ig," Vigilia, XIII (1948), 175-178.

Examines the Alexius (1916) in relation to "Zrínyi harmadik éneke" (1916} and Maradék magyarok (1919), and connects it with "Éjszaka 1917-ben" and Tizenkét csillagú korona (1947), finding in the latter the synthesis of the thought in Alexius DLC NN NNC

3260. "Sík Sándor-szám," Vigilia, XXIV (1959), 65-99.

A memorial issue for his 70th birthday consisting of several studies of his life, literary development, and poetry. NN NNC GyBH

3261. Ohmacht Nándor. "Sík Sándor rejtett vonásai," Vigilia, XXIX (1964), 5-9.

His popularity explained on the basis of his Catholicism, honesty, goodness, faithfulness to friends, and, especially, his mysticism. MH NN GyBH

3262. Rónay György. "Emlékeim Sík Sándorról," Vigilia, XXIX (1964), 10-17.

A fragmentary personal recollection of Sík's career in which Rónay tries to place him in modern Hungarian poetry, stating that the classicism of the first half of his career was successfully supplanted by neo-expressionism. MH NN GyBH