Cesarini, Giuliano; Carvajal, Juan; Burgio, Antonio Giovanni

Julian Cesarini 1.
church hierarchy
Turks and Hungarians
Cesarini, Giuliano (13981444)

Italian prelate, cardinal, papal diplomat, legate. He originated from a Roman noble family. He studied law in Padua and then he taught there. From the 1420s he was one of the leaders of papal foreign policy. From 1426 he was cardinal, and a legate in Germany against the Hussites. He was the head of the synod of Basel in the name of Pope Eugene IV until 1437, then he took part in meetings at Ferrara and Florence. In 1439 he declared the reunification of the western and eastern churches at the synod of Florence, and he did his best to make Byzatium accept it. In 1442 Pope Eugene IV sent him to Hungary as a papal legate to make peace with King Wladislas II and Queen Elisabeth (peace was made on 13 December) and organise the crusade against the Turks. In the winter of 1443-1444 he participated in the long campaign. In April, 1444 he made King Wladislas II and the estates of the Buda parliament take an oath to start a crusade against the Turks in the summer in alliance with the Pope, Venice and the Philip, Prince of Burgundy. On 4 August he made the king and Hunyadi take an oath again in Szeged to keep their promise under all circumstances, disregarding the peace made with the sultan. As George Brankovics and John Hunyadi made an advantageous peace with the ministers of sultan Murad at Várad in the name of the king, Cesarini exempted the king from the oath of peace after 15 August, so that he could start the attack. In spite of Cesarini's efforts the alliance against the sultan failed and he died in the battle of Várna together with King Wladislas.


Carvajal, Juan, de (13991469)

A prelate of Spanish origin, papal diplomat, expert on canon law, cardinal (from 1446). He was a papal legate 22 times in different countries, he first visited Hungary in 1448. In 1455 Pope Calixtus III entrusted him with organising a crusade against the Turks. With John of Capistrano's support he played an important role in preparing the 1456 victory at Nándorfehérvár. He had an important role in electing Matthias Hunyadi to be king. In 1459-1461 he organised peace negotiations between Emperor Frederick III and King Matthias. He supported the Hungarian king's plans against the Turks. He left Hungary in 1462 for Rome, where he was a candidate for the papacy in 1464. John Vitéz said that he loved Hungary as his homeland.


Burgio, Antonio Giovanni (†1538)

Despite being a secular person he was a papal legate in Hungary from 1524. He played an important role in organising a campaign against the Turks in 1526. He was very popular with the Hungarians. In his reports he gave a realistic picture of the situation of the country before the defeat at Mohács, although he did not see the role and intentions of certain politicians clearly all the times. After 1526 he escaped to Pozsony with Queen Maria, then he went to Rome. In 1527 he returned to Hungary. From 1529 until his death he lived in his homeland, Sicily, where he performed diplomatic duties.